Lesson-3-1

Online English lessons. Class 3 – Дарси 3

ҲАРФҲО. ОВОЗҲО. ҲАРФҲОИ САДОНОК.

Забони англиси дорои 26 ҳарф ва   44 овоз аст. Аз 26 то ҳарф 20 -тоаш ҳарфҳои ҳамсадо ва 6- тоаш ҳарфҳои садонок мебошад

Aa[ei][ei,æ]Hh[eit∫][h]Oo[әv][әv,ɔ]Vv[vi:][v]
Bb[bi:][b]Ii[ai][ai,i]Pp[pi:][p]Ww[‘dʌblju:][w]
Cc[si:][k,s]Jj[dʒei][dз]Qq[kju:][kw,k]Xx[eks][gz,ks]
Dd[di:][d]Kk[kei][k]Rr[a:][r]Yy[wai][ai,i,j]
Ee[i:][i:,i,e]Ll[el][l]Ss[es][s,z]Zz[zed][z]
Ff[ef][f]Mm[em][m]Tt[ti:][t]
Gg[dʒi:][dʒ,g]Nn[en][n]Uu[ju:][ju:.ʌ]

Харфҳои садонок a,e,i,o.u.y ва боқимонда ҳамсадо мебошад. Аз 20 ҳарфи ҳамсадо 15  ҳарфи ҳамсадо яктогӣ овоз медиҳад.  5 ҳарфи ҳамсадо, ‘’ c,q,g,s,x’’ду овоз медиҳад, ки он вобаста ба мавқеи онҳо дар доҳили калима аст.

Cc

-[s] -пеш аз садонокҳои  e,i,y: nice,city,cycle,race,ice,center,place,pencil

– [k]-дар дигаp ҳолатҳо: can, act, clinic, combine, computer, concrete, cut,

cotton, contuct

Ss

-[s] 1) дар аввали калима: sit

2) мобайн,пеш ё баъд аз ҳамсадоҳо: desk

3) дар охир баъди ҳамсадоҳои беҷаранг: sits,keeps

4)якҷоягии ss- kiss, boss

-[z] 1) дар мобайни садонокҳо: visit, please

2)дар охир, ,баъди ҳарфҳои садонок: is, beеs, boys

3)дар охир баъди ҳарфҳои ҳамсадоҳои ҷарангдор: pens, beds

Qq

-[kw]-quick,quest

-[k]   -cheque, oblique

Xx

-[gz]-пеш аз ҳиҷои  заданок : e’xam, e’xact, e`xample

-[ks]-дар дигар мавридхо: next, six.

Машқҳо барои хониш.

ice‘aiscity‘sitican‘kæn
cycle‘saiklcat‘kætcottonkɔtn
centersentәicy‘aisicudkʌd
placepleispencilpensilcameKeim
cinderellasindә’relәcentral‘sentrәlcaveKeiv
cab‘kæbpicturepikt∫әcontact‘kɔntækt
club‘klʌbmusic‘mju:zikscraperskreipә
cubickju:bikclock‘klɔktwicetwais
tractortræktәfase‘feispactpækt
practicalpræktikәlrace‘reiselectrici’lektrik
cosmic‘kɔzmikcomputerkәm’pju:tәcombine‘kәm’bain
conductorkәn’dʌktәcent‘sentofficeɔfis
cable‘keiblcupkʌpactor‘æktә
fact‘fæktcontractkɔntræktcompany‘kɔmpәni
columnkɔlәmvicevaiscirclesә:kl
concrete‘kɔnkri:tcarpenterka:pintә‘doctor‘dɔktә
spacespeislaceleiscapkæp
cliffklifcellselcitesait
clapklæpcleankli:nnicenais
capekeipcandle‘kændlcampkæmp
canekeincattle‘kætlcynic‘sinik

Gg

pagepeidʒgrey‘greigemdʒem
ageeidʒlargerla:dʒәgetget
gentledʒentlgipsy‘dʒipsigraingrein
Egypti’dʒiptgreengri:ngategeit
gindʒinbag‘bæggardenga:dәn
flagflæggas‘gæsgymdʒim
genderdʒendәgumgʌmgoodgud
pegpeggalegeilgaingein
cagekeidʒbigbigbadge‘bædʒ
stage‘steidʒstagstæggodgɔd
glimglimsageseidʒdigdig
gypsy‘dʒipsigotgɔtgossip‘gɔsip
gogouglide‘glaidgladglæd
genedʒi:ngeodesydʒi’ɔdisiloglɔg

(to get,begin, give, girl –аз қоида берун)

Ss

busbʌssixsikskiss‘kis
usʌsmustmʌstbossbɔs
bustbʌstisizsitsSits
steelsti:lbensbenzkeepski:ps
pleasepli:zbedsbedzdeskDesk
sitsitsystem‘sistәmspeedspi:d
sailorseilәstreetstri:tsecond‘sekәnd
becausebi’kɔ:zpossiblepɔsiblprogressiveprә’gresiv
visitvisitconsistkәn’sistaska:sk
sadsædfeedsfi:dznotes‘nouts
bellsbelzbeesbi:zstylesstailz
sendssendztablesteiblzplansplænz
stopsstɔpstiestaizsellsselz

 =Qu=

quality‘kwɔlitiquestkwestquaffkwa:f
quickkwikquarrel‘kwɔrәlquarter‘kwɔ:tә
quarts‘kwɔ:tsquayki:queenkwi:n
quitekwaitquestion‘kwest∫naquline‘ækwilain
aquariumә’kwεәriәmaquaticә’kwætikchequet∫ek
obliqueɔ’bli:kchequer‘t∫ekәrequireri’kwaiә
equipmenti’kwipmentequatori’kweitәrequestri’kwest

=X=

e’xamig’zæme’xistig’ziste’xampleig’za:mpl
e’xactig’zækte’xhibitig’zibitboxbɔks
nextnekstex’ceptik’septex’pectiks’pekt
excellentek’sələntwaxwækstexttekst
sixsikstaxi‘tæksifixfiks

Ҳарфҳои садонок  ва қоидаҳои  хониши он

=Aa=

a-дар ҳиҷои кушод-[ei];

-дар ҳиҷои баста-[æ]

take-[teik];plate-[pleit]

lamp

[læmp];bag-[bæg]

tap, map,  man, at, add, hand, hat, stand, land, lamp, plan, flag, tram,  lake, make, plane, take, cake,blame,pale, mate,sake,fate, make,fat,van,sand,land,lad,name,sane, fame,lamp,stamp,lake,bad,sale,late,plan,ale,

date,bat, nave,tape,pan,fan,blade,lane

ai-[ei]

ay-[ei]

mail-[meil]

day-[dei]

pain,vain,nail,day,lain,may,pay,say,

clay,aim,nay,mail,fail,sail,bay,lay,claim,

plain,laid,rain,’waiter,’painter,main,way,

to’day,gay,tray,play,

a-[a:]-пеш аз s + ҳамсадо

 

mask-[ma:sk]master,pass,class,task,fast,grass,grasp,

last,vast,classroom,ask

a+lk-[o:k]

a+ll-[o:l]

chalk-[t∫ɔ:k]

tall-[tɔ:l]

chalk,talk,walk,balk,hall,ball,all,wall,tall,

call,small,also,already

ai+r; air-[εә]pair-[pεә]air,stair,hair,pair,chair,fair,’dairy,’fairy
ar-[a:]

a+re[εә]

car,large-[ka:]

mare,dare-[mεә]

rare,marble,article,far,care,fare,dare,car,

mare,hare,hard,bar,square,stare,yard,

share,charm,harm,dark,star,bare,scare

a-[a:] пеш аз th[ð]father,rather

-[fa:ðә]

[θ]path,bath

-[pa:θ]

father, rather,bath,bathroom,path
aw-[ɔ:]paw-[pɔ:]paw,saw,dawn,awl,raw,law,draw,’awful
au-[ɔ:]‘cause-[kɔ:z]be’cause,’saucer,’autumn,cause

=Ee=

e-дар ҳиҷои кушод[i:]

дар ҳиҷои баста-[e]

be-[bi:]Pete-[pi:t]

 

 

left-[left]

eve,me,mete,pete,net,lend,bet,pen,spend,

bent,bend,left,bede,let,men,best,kept,be,

slept,met,melt,send,step,test,mend,these,

red,wet,bed,pencil,pen,next,twelve

ee-[i:]

ea-[i:]

ei-[i:]

ie-[i:]

see-[si:]

sea-[si:]

‘ceiling-[si:liŋ]

niece-[ni:s]

lead,mean,speak,heat,reach,cheap,see,

need,deed,reed,read,seed,meet,meat,sea,

please,tea,ceiling,seize,re’ceive,niece,

field,piece,priest,chief,steel,leaf,green

аз қоида берун-dead,bread,deaf,’ready,

‘heavy,meant

e+r-[ә:]

e+re-[iә]

her-[hә:]

here-[hiә]

servant,person,nerve,serf,herd,hers,merely,

term,terse,serve,mere,sere,sphere,serious

er-дар охири калима[ә]teacher-[ti:t∫ә]teacher,singer,reader,fisher,member,

October,mother,father,brother

ea-[e]пеш аз ‘’sure’’pleasure-[pleʒә]pleasure,measure,treasure
ear-[ә:]дар сари ва миёни калимаearly-[ә:li]

learn-[lә:n]

early,earth,learn,earn,heard,learn
ew-[ju:]new-[nju:]new,few,dew,knew,mew
ear [iә]- алоҳида ва дар охири калимаear-[iә]

clear-[kliә]

ear,clear,hear,near,fear,dear,year
ey-[ei]

eigh-[ei]

they-[ðei]

eight-[eit]

they,grey,obey,eight,weight,neigh,weigh

= Ii=

i-[ai]дар

ҳиҷои кушод

[i] дар ҳиҷои баста

five-[faiv]

 

 

hit-[hit]

tie,size,if,nip,tip,fit,mine,fine,dive,tin,pine,

life,side,lift,sin,pipe,tide,kid,like,time,tint,

is,did,nine,kite,five,quite,die

i+r-[ә:]firm-[fә:m]firm,sir,first,thirty,third,girl,shirt,dirty,

skirt,whirl,bird,circle

i+re-[aiә]mire-[maiә]tired,mire,wire,hire,fire
i+gh-[ai]fight-[fait]light,might,night,sight,high,flight,sigh,

knight,right

i+nd-[ai]kind-[kaind]kind,mind,find,blind
i+ld-[ai]child-[t∫aild]child,mild,wild

=Oo=

o-ҳичои кушод-[ou]

ҳичои баста-[ɔ]

note-[nout]

 

 

 

lot-[lɔt]

go,so,no,stone,sole,zone,lot,stop,not,on,

dome nose,clock,sock,spoke,vote,note,

spot,off,odd,slope,slot,stock,doll,pole,

dot,soft,dock,rode,rose,whole,lost,frost,

a’long

o+r-[ɔ:]

o+re-[ɔ:]

north-[nɔ:θ]

more-[mɔ:]

north,short,for,port,porter,sport,more,

shore,sore,cord,fork,score,born,core,store,

sort,’forty,fore,horde,ex’plore

or-дар охири калима[ә]actor-[æktә]

 

actor,doctor,monitor
o-[ʌ]пеш аз ҳарф m,n,th,vcome-[kʌm]

love-[lʌv]

mother-[mʌðә]

front-[frʌnt]

dove,some,won,front,month,mother, brother,come,love,glove,wonder
oy-[ɔi]

oi-[ɔi]

boy-bɔi]

oil-[sɔil]

soil,boy,toy,voice,noise,coin,soil,boil
oor-[ɔ:]door,floor
our-[ɔ:]your,four,pour
oa-[ou]boat,load,road,soap,throat,coast
ow-[ou]low,row,know,show blow,throw
o+ld-[ould]cold,old,sold,bold,told,fold
o+st-[oust]post,most
ow-[au]town,down,brown,gown
ou-[au]out,a’bout,round,loud,proud
oo-[u]пеш аз ҳарфи k,t,dbook,look,took,good,hook,brook,foot,cook,

cookie,goodly,mood

oo-[u:]fool,spoon,moon,soon,tool,zoo,too,food
ou-[u:]soup,group
ou-[ʌ]couple,young,country,trouble
ou+gh-[ʌf]rough,e’nough,tough
o-[ʌ]son,won,mother,brother,glove
o+ne[wʌn]One

=U=

u-       [ju:]

 

-[ʌ]

дар ҳиҷои кушод

дар ҳиҷои баста

use,union,cue,due,,a’muse,music

 

lunch,punch,cup,bud,shut

u-[u]pull,full,bush,push,bull
ue-[u:]true,rude,blue,brute,glue
ui-[u:]Fruit
ur-[ә:]burn,turn,curl,hurt,turtle,nurse,urgent
u+re-[juә]lure,en’dure,se’cure,pure

=Y=

y- -[ai]

а-[i]

ҳиҷои кушод

бастa

cry,dry,by,dye,my,type,bye,style

gym,system

y+r-[ә:]myrtle,tyrant
y+re-[aiә]tyre,Byron
y-[j]

 

-[i]

 дар сари калима

дар охири калимаҳои ду таркиба ва дар калимаҳои безада

yes,yet,yellow,yesterday,every,many,yell,

yak,yelk,yeast,’lady,’silly,’fancy,’fifty,

‘ninety,’kitty,zany,’easy,lazy,’daddy,

‘nicely,’needy,neatly,’tiny,’stickly

Хониши якҷояи  садонокҳо.

ee-[i:]-tree,street,see,meet;   ou-[au]-house,mouse,out;

ai-[ei]-rain,pain,main;            oi-[ɔi]-boil,toil,join;

ea-[i:]-tea,team,sea,meat ;     au-[ɔ:]-auger,August,autocar;

oo-[u:]-spoon,moon,tool;      oy-[ɔi]-boy,toy,joy;

oa-[ou]-coat, boat,load,loaf;  oo-[u]+k-book,look,took;  ay-[ei]-day,play,stay.

Хониши  якҷояи  ҳамсадоҳо.

ck [k] – black [blæ k] , duck [dʌk] , luck [lʌk]

sh [∫] – she [ ∫i:] -, shelf [∫elf ] -, show [∫ou] .

augh [ ɔ :] –  daughter, taught

ch [t∫] – chain [t∫ein] , cheese [t∫i:z] , chess [t∫es] .Эзоҳ: пайвастагии ҳарфҳои  ch аз калимаи юнонӣ гирифта шудааст ва  [k] хонда мешавад  ва одатан дар калимаҳои илмӣ ё дар калимаҳои байналмиллалӣ вомехӯрад.  Масалан, school- мактаб, chrome – хром, chord – хорда (математика.), choreography [kɔri’ɔ græ   fi] – хореография, chemistry-кимиёвӣ, technical – техникӣ.  Дар калимаҳое, ки аз забони фаронсавӣ ба забони англисӣ гузаштаанд, пайвастагии ҳарфҳои ch –  [ ∫ ]  хонда мешавад: machine – машина, дастгоҳ,  champagne –шампон.

-tch [t∫] – coatch , match, stretch ,

ph – дар калимаҳое, ки аз забони юнонӣ иқтибос шудаанд, вомехӯрад  ва [f] хонда мешаванд:  phone-телефон, physics-физика, phlox – флокс (гул), phrase- ибора, philosophy-философия.

-th [  ð ] – weather, bathe, the, there, then, this, that    (одатан дар аввал ё мобайни калимаҳои маълуму машҳур истифода мешавад.).

-th [θ ] – thin , thick , theme –  тема, (дар аввал ва охири  калима меояд)  вале  booth – [bu:ð  ], smooth – [smu:ð])

-ng [η] – long, song, bring, ring.

-gh [f] – баъд аз au, ou дар охири калима: laugh [la:f], rough  –[ra:f] ;

-gh– баъд аз i, au, ou  ва пеш аз ‘’t’’ хонда намешавад :  right, thought, daughter, night, knight;

-gh– [g] –дар аввали калима –  ghastly [goustly] ; ghost [ goust];

-kn[n] – дар сари калима: know, knit, knife;

-mb [m] – дар охири калима: climb, dimb;

– ci [∫] – special, suspicious, musician;

-ft [f]  – пеш аз пасоянд  -often, soften;

-dge [dʒ  ] – bridge, judge;

-rh [r] –  дар калимаҳои  юнонӣ  – rhyme, rheumatism;

-si, ssi [ ∫] – Asia, Russia;

-sion [ʒ n] – vision, [viʒn ],  decision – [di’si ʒ n];

-sion [∫ n] – баъд аз ҳамсадои  s – session, mission, profession;

-sten [sn] – listen, fasten;

-stle [sl] – bustle, castle ;

-sure [∫e] – баъд аз ҳамсадои s –  pressure [’pre ∫ə ] ;

-sure [ʒe]-measure, pleasure;

-tch [t∫] – match, watch;

-ear [ ə :] – пеш аз ҳамсадо:  – earth, search, rehearse,  вале: heart [ha:t]

-ear [i ə] – hear, dear, clear,  вале: bear -[bεæ], year – [jə:], swear -[swεæ],

pear- [pεæ]

-ture [t∫ə] – structure, lecture, picture, mixture, culture, nature

-tion; s+sion [∫n] – асли суффикс – романӣ:  profession [prə‘fe∫(ə)n], nation [nei∫n], vocation [vo(u)‘kei∫(ə) n].

toefl.sutoefl.su

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