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Online English lessons. Class 3 – Дарси 3

ҲАРФҲО. ОВОЗҲО. ҲАРФҲОИ САДОНОК.

Забони англиси дорои 26 ҳарф ва   44 овоз аст. Аз 26 то ҳарф 20 -тоаш ҳарфҳои ҳамсадо ва 6- тоаш ҳарфҳои садонок мебошад

Aa [ei] [ei,æ] Hh [eit∫] [h] Oo [әv] [әv,ɔ] Vv [vi:] [v]
Bb [bi:] [b] Ii [ai] [ai,i] Pp [pi:] [p] Ww [‘dʌblju:] [w]
Cc [si:] [k,s] Jj [dʒei] [dз] Qq [kju:] [kw,k] Xx [eks] [gz,ks]
Dd [di:] [d] Kk [kei] [k] Rr [a:] [r] Yy [wai] [ai,i,j]
Ee [i:] [i:,i,e] Ll [el] [l] Ss [es] [s,z] Zz [zed] [z]
Ff [ef] [f] Mm [em] [m] Tt [ti:] [t]
Gg [dʒi:] [dʒ,g] Nn [en] [n] Uu [ju:] [ju:.ʌ]

Харфҳои садонок a,e,i,o.u.y ва боқимонда ҳамсадо мебошад. Аз 20 ҳарфи ҳамсадо 15  ҳарфи ҳамсадо яктогӣ овоз медиҳад.  5 ҳарфи ҳамсадо, ‘’ c,q,g,s,x’’ду овоз медиҳад, ки он вобаста ба мавқеи онҳо дар доҳили калима аст.

Cc

-[s] -пеш аз садонокҳои  e,i,y: nice,city,cycle,race,ice,center,place,pencil

– [k]-дар дигаp ҳолатҳо: can, act, clinic, combine, computer, concrete, cut,

cotton, contuct

Ss

-[s] 1) дар аввали калима: sit

2) мобайн,пеш ё баъд аз ҳамсадоҳо: desk

3) дар охир баъди ҳамсадоҳои беҷаранг: sits,keeps

4)якҷоягии ss- kiss, boss

-[z] 1) дар мобайни садонокҳо: visit, please

2)дар охир, ,баъди ҳарфҳои садонок: is, beеs, boys

3)дар охир баъди ҳарфҳои ҳамсадоҳои ҷарангдор: pens, beds

Qq

-[kw]-quick,quest

-[k]   -cheque, oblique

Xx

-[gz]-пеш аз ҳиҷои  заданок : e’xam, e’xact, e`xample

-[ks]-дар дигар мавридхо: next, six.

Машқҳо барои хониш.

ice ‘ais city ‘siti can ‘kæn
cycle ‘saikl cat ‘kæt cotton kɔtn
center sentә icy ‘aisi cud kʌd
place pleis pencil pensil came Keim
cinderella sindә’relә central ‘sentrәl cave Keiv
cab ‘kæb picture pikt∫ә contact ‘kɔntækt
club ‘klʌb music ‘mju:zik scraper skreipә
cubic kju:bik clock ‘klɔk twice twais
tractor træktә fase ‘feis pact pækt
practical præktikәl race ‘reis electric i’lektrik
cosmic ‘kɔzmik computer kәm’pju:tә combine ‘kәm’bain
conductor kәn’dʌktә cent ‘sent office ɔfis
cable ‘keibl cup kʌp actor ‘æktә
fact ‘fækt contract kɔntrækt company ‘kɔmpәni
column kɔlәm vice vais circle sә:kl
concrete ‘kɔnkri:t carpenter ka:pintә ‘doctor ‘dɔktә
space speis lace leis cap kæp
cliff klif cell sel cite sait
clap klæp clean kli:n nice nais
cape keip candle ‘kændl camp kæmp
cane kein cattle ‘kætl cynic ‘sinik

Gg

page peidʒ grey ‘grei gem dʒem
age eidʒ larger la:dʒә get get
gentle dʒentl gipsy ‘dʒipsi grain grein
Egypt i’dʒipt green gri:n gate geit
gin dʒin bag ‘bæg garden ga:dәn
flag flæg gas ‘gæs gym dʒim
gender dʒendә gum gʌm good gud
peg peg gale geil gain gein
cage keidʒ big big badge ‘bædʒ
stage ‘steidʒ stag stæg god gɔd
glim glim sage seidʒ dig dig
gypsy ‘dʒipsi got gɔt gossip ‘gɔsip
go gou glide ‘glaid glad glæd
gene dʒi:n geodesy dʒi’ɔdisi log lɔg

(to get,begin, give, girl –аз қоида берун)

Ss

bus bʌs six siks kiss ‘kis
us ʌs must mʌst boss bɔs
bust bʌst is iz sits Sits
steel sti:l bens benz keeps ki:ps
please pli:z beds bedz desk Desk
sit sit system ‘sistәm speed spi:d
sailor seilә street stri:t second ‘sekәnd
because bi’kɔ:z possible pɔsibl progressive prә’gresiv
visit visit consist kәn’sist ask a:sk
sad sæd feeds fi:dz notes ‘nouts
bells belz bees bi:z styles stailz
sends sendz tables teiblz plans plænz
stops stɔps ties taiz sells selz

 =Qu=

quality ‘kwɔliti quest kwest quaff kwa:f
quick kwik quarrel ‘kwɔrәl quarter ‘kwɔ:tә
quarts ‘kwɔ:ts quay ki: queen kwi:n
quite kwait question ‘kwest∫n aquline ‘ækwilain
aquarium ә’kwεәriәm aquatic ә’kwætik cheque t∫ek
oblique ɔ’bli:k chequer ‘t∫ekә require ri’kwaiә
equipment i’kwipment equator i’kweitә request ri’kwest

=X=

e’xam ig’zæm e’xist ig’zist e’xample ig’za:mpl
e’xact ig’zækt e’xhibit ig’zibit box bɔks
next nekst ex’cept ik’sept ex’pect iks’pekt
excellent ek’sələnt wax wæks text tekst
six siks taxi ‘tæksi fix fiks

Ҳарфҳои садонок  ва қоидаҳои  хониши он

=Aa=

a-дар ҳиҷои кушод-[ei];

-дар ҳиҷои баста-[æ]

take-[teik];plate-[pleit]

lamp

[læmp];bag-[bæg]

tap, map,  man, at, add, hand, hat, stand, land, lamp, plan, flag, tram,  lake, make, plane, take, cake,blame,pale, mate,sake,fate, make,fat,van,sand,land,lad,name,sane, fame,lamp,stamp,lake,bad,sale,late,plan,ale,

date,bat, nave,tape,pan,fan,blade,lane

ai-[ei]

ay-[ei]

mail-[meil]

day-[dei]

pain,vain,nail,day,lain,may,pay,say,

clay,aim,nay,mail,fail,sail,bay,lay,claim,

plain,laid,rain,’waiter,’painter,main,way,

to’day,gay,tray,play,

a-[a:]-пеш аз s + ҳамсадо

 

mask-[ma:sk] master,pass,class,task,fast,grass,grasp,

last,vast,classroom,ask

a+lk-[o:k]

a+ll-[o:l]

chalk-[t∫ɔ:k]

tall-[tɔ:l]

chalk,talk,walk,balk,hall,ball,all,wall,tall,

call,small,also,already

ai+r; air-[εә] pair-[pεә] air,stair,hair,pair,chair,fair,’dairy,’fairy
ar-[a:]

a+re[εә]

car,large-[ka:]

mare,dare-[mεә]

rare,marble,article,far,care,fare,dare,car,

mare,hare,hard,bar,square,stare,yard,

share,charm,harm,dark,star,bare,scare

a-[a:] пеш аз th [ð]father,rather

-[fa:ðә]

[θ]path,bath

-[pa:θ]

father, rather,bath,bathroom,path
aw-[ɔ:] paw-[pɔ:] paw,saw,dawn,awl,raw,law,draw,’awful
au-[ɔ:] ‘cause-[kɔ:z] be’cause,’saucer,’autumn,cause

=Ee=

e-дар ҳиҷои кушод[i:]

дар ҳиҷои баста-[e]

be-[bi:]Pete-[pi:t]

 

 

left-[left]

eve,me,mete,pete,net,lend,bet,pen,spend,

bent,bend,left,bede,let,men,best,kept,be,

slept,met,melt,send,step,test,mend,these,

red,wet,bed,pencil,pen,next,twelve

ee-[i:]

ea-[i:]

ei-[i:]

ie-[i:]

see-[si:]

sea-[si:]

‘ceiling-[si:liŋ]

niece-[ni:s]

lead,mean,speak,heat,reach,cheap,see,

need,deed,reed,read,seed,meet,meat,sea,

please,tea,ceiling,seize,re’ceive,niece,

field,piece,priest,chief,steel,leaf,green

аз қоида берун-dead,bread,deaf,’ready,

‘heavy,meant

e+r-[ә:]

e+re-[iә]

her-[hә:]

here-[hiә]

servant,person,nerve,serf,herd,hers,merely,

term,terse,serve,mere,sere,sphere,serious

er-дар охири калима[ә] teacher-[ti:t∫ә] teacher,singer,reader,fisher,member,

October,mother,father,brother

ea-[e]пеш аз ‘’sure’’ pleasure-[pleʒә] pleasure,measure,treasure
ear-[ә:]дар сари ва миёни калима early-[ә:li]

learn-[lә:n]

early,earth,learn,earn,heard,learn
ew-[ju:] new-[nju:] new,few,dew,knew,mew
ear [iә]- алоҳида ва дар охири калима ear-[iә]

clear-[kliә]

ear,clear,hear,near,fear,dear,year
ey-[ei]

eigh-[ei]

they-[ðei]

eight-[eit]

they,grey,obey,eight,weight,neigh,weigh

= Ii=

i-[ai]дар

ҳиҷои кушод

[i] дар ҳиҷои баста

five-[faiv]

 

 

hit-[hit]

tie,size,if,nip,tip,fit,mine,fine,dive,tin,pine,

life,side,lift,sin,pipe,tide,kid,like,time,tint,

is,did,nine,kite,five,quite,die

i+r-[ә:] firm-[fә:m] firm,sir,first,thirty,third,girl,shirt,dirty,

skirt,whirl,bird,circle

i+re-[aiә] mire-[maiә] tired,mire,wire,hire,fire
i+gh-[ai] fight-[fait] light,might,night,sight,high,flight,sigh,

knight,right

i+nd-[ai] kind-[kaind] kind,mind,find,blind
i+ld-[ai] child-[t∫aild] child,mild,wild

=Oo=

o-ҳичои кушод-[ou]

ҳичои баста-[ɔ]

note-[nout]

 

 

 

lot-[lɔt]

go,so,no,stone,sole,zone,lot,stop,not,on,

dome nose,clock,sock,spoke,vote,note,

spot,off,odd,slope,slot,stock,doll,pole,

dot,soft,dock,rode,rose,whole,lost,frost,

a’long

o+r-[ɔ:]

o+re-[ɔ:]

north-[nɔ:θ]

more-[mɔ:]

north,short,for,port,porter,sport,more,

shore,sore,cord,fork,score,born,core,store,

sort,’forty,fore,horde,ex’plore

or-дар охири калима[ә] actor-[æktә]

 

actor,doctor,monitor
o-[ʌ]пеш аз ҳарф m,n,th,v come-[kʌm]

love-[lʌv]

mother-[mʌðә]

front-[frʌnt]

dove,some,won,front,month,mother, brother,come,love,glove,wonder
oy-[ɔi]

oi-[ɔi]

boy-bɔi]

oil-[sɔil]

soil,boy,toy,voice,noise,coin,soil,boil
oor-[ɔ:] door,floor
our-[ɔ:] your,four,pour
oa-[ou] boat,load,road,soap,throat,coast
ow-[ou] low,row,know,show blow,throw
o+ld-[ould] cold,old,sold,bold,told,fold
o+st-[oust] post,most
ow-[au] town,down,brown,gown
ou-[au] out,a’bout,round,loud,proud
oo-[u] пеш аз ҳарфи k,t,d book,look,took,good,hook,brook,foot,cook,

cookie,goodly,mood

oo-[u:] fool,spoon,moon,soon,tool,zoo,too,food
ou-[u:] soup,group
ou-[ʌ] couple,young,country,trouble
ou+gh-[ʌf] rough,e’nough,tough
o-[ʌ] son,won,mother,brother,glove
o+ne[wʌn] One

=U=

u-       [ju:]

 

-[ʌ]

дар ҳиҷои кушод

дар ҳиҷои баста

use,union,cue,due,,a’muse,music

 

lunch,punch,cup,bud,shut

u-[u] pull,full,bush,push,bull
ue-[u:] true,rude,blue,brute,glue
ui-[u:] Fruit
ur-[ә:] burn,turn,curl,hurt,turtle,nurse,urgent
u+re-[juә] lure,en’dure,se’cure,pure

=Y=

y- -[ai]

а-[i]

ҳиҷои кушод

бастa

cry,dry,by,dye,my,type,bye,style

gym,system

y+r-[ә:] myrtle,tyrant
y+re-[aiә] tyre,Byron
y-[j]

 

-[i]

 дар сари калима

дар охири калимаҳои ду таркиба ва дар калимаҳои безада

yes,yet,yellow,yesterday,every,many,yell,

yak,yelk,yeast,’lady,’silly,’fancy,’fifty,

‘ninety,’kitty,zany,’easy,lazy,’daddy,

‘nicely,’needy,neatly,’tiny,’stickly

Хониши якҷояи  садонокҳо.

ee-[i:]-tree,street,see,meet;   ou-[au]-house,mouse,out;

ai-[ei]-rain,pain,main;            oi-[ɔi]-boil,toil,join;

ea-[i:]-tea,team,sea,meat ;     au-[ɔ:]-auger,August,autocar;

oo-[u:]-spoon,moon,tool;      oy-[ɔi]-boy,toy,joy;

oa-[ou]-coat, boat,load,loaf;  oo-[u]+k-book,look,took;  ay-[ei]-day,play,stay.

Хониши  якҷояи  ҳамсадоҳо.

ck [k] – black [blæ k] , duck [dʌk] , luck [lʌk]

sh [∫] – she [ ∫i:] -, shelf [∫elf ] -, show [∫ou] .

augh [ ɔ :] –  daughter, taught

ch [t∫] – chain [t∫ein] , cheese [t∫i:z] , chess [t∫es] .Эзоҳ: пайвастагии ҳарфҳои  ch аз калимаи юнонӣ гирифта шудааст ва  [k] хонда мешавад  ва одатан дар калимаҳои илмӣ ё дар калимаҳои байналмиллалӣ вомехӯрад.  Масалан, school- мактаб, chrome – хром, chord – хорда (математика.), choreography [kɔri’ɔ græ   fi] – хореография, chemistry-кимиёвӣ, technical – техникӣ.  Дар калимаҳое, ки аз забони фаронсавӣ ба забони англисӣ гузаштаанд, пайвастагии ҳарфҳои ch –  [ ∫ ]  хонда мешавад: machine – машина, дастгоҳ,  champagne –шампон.

-tch [t∫] – coatch , match, stretch ,

ph – дар калимаҳое, ки аз забони юнонӣ иқтибос шудаанд, вомехӯрад  ва [f] хонда мешаванд:  phone-телефон, physics-физика, phlox – флокс (гул), phrase- ибора, philosophy-философия.

-th [  ð ] – weather, bathe, the, there, then, this, that    (одатан дар аввал ё мобайни калимаҳои маълуму машҳур истифода мешавад.).

-th [θ ] – thin , thick , theme –  тема, (дар аввал ва охири  калима меояд)  вале  booth – [bu:ð  ], smooth – [smu:ð])

-ng [η] – long, song, bring, ring.

-gh [f] – баъд аз au, ou дар охири калима: laugh [la:f], rough  –[ra:f] ;

-gh– баъд аз i, au, ou  ва пеш аз ‘’t’’ хонда намешавад :  right, thought, daughter, night, knight;

-gh– [g] –дар аввали калима –  ghastly [goustly] ; ghost [ goust];

-kn[n] – дар сари калима: know, knit, knife;

-mb [m] – дар охири калима: climb, dimb;

– ci [∫] – special, suspicious, musician;

-ft [f]  – пеш аз пасоянд  -often, soften;

-dge [dʒ  ] – bridge, judge;

-rh [r] –  дар калимаҳои  юнонӣ  – rhyme, rheumatism;

-si, ssi [ ∫] – Asia, Russia;

-sion [ʒ n] – vision, [viʒn ],  decision – [di’si ʒ n];

-sion [∫ n] – баъд аз ҳамсадои  s – session, mission, profession;

-sten [sn] – listen, fasten;

-stle [sl] – bustle, castle ;

-sure [∫e] – баъд аз ҳамсадои s –  pressure [’pre ∫ə ] ;

-sure [ʒe]-measure, pleasure;

-tch [t∫] – match, watch;

-ear [ ə :] – пеш аз ҳамсадо:  – earth, search, rehearse,  вале: heart [ha:t]

-ear [i ə] – hear, dear, clear,  вале: bear -[bεæ], year – [jə:], swear -[swεæ],

pear- [pεæ]

-ture [t∫ə] – structure, lecture, picture, mixture, culture, nature

-tion; s+sion [∫n] – асли суффикс – романӣ:  profession [prə‘fe∫(ə)n], nation [nei∫n], vocation [vo(u)‘kei∫(ə) n].

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