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Online English lessons. Class 4 – Дарси 4

Артиклҳо – Articles

Артикл категория ё нишондиҳандаи  исм буда,  пеш аз он ва  сифат меояд. Дар забони англисӣ ду артикл мавчуд аст:

артикли номуайянӣ – а, (an) (indefinite article) ва артикли муайянӣ – the (definite article).

The indefinite article ва сифрӣ( яъне набудани артикл) abstract. Шакли ‘’a ва an’’нишондиҳанда як навъи артикланд, ки онро артикли номуайян меноманд. Ин артикл муайянкунандаи исм мебошад ва он бо исми шумурдашавандае, ки предметро номбар мекунад ва онро чун намояндаи гурӯҳи ҳамон предмет  тасниф мекунад, аммо онро дақиқ нишон намедиҳад, истифода мешавад.

He is a businessman – Bай корчаллон аст .( на муаллим на муҳандис…)  It is a hotel – Ин меҳмонхона аст. ( на театр на мактаб …) It is my family. Write his name. Let’s see her flat артикл дида намешавад зеро пеш аз исмҳо ҷонишини соҳибӣ истодааст. Умуман , маънои артикли номуайянро  чун «ягон,кадоме ;  як; яке аз онҳо; кадоме , ки набошад;  кадоме набошад» фахмидан мумкин аст.Аз ин сабаб, ин артикл танҳо бо исми шаклаш танҳо корбаст мешавад: a bag, a tent, a plan…

Яъне артикли номуайянӣ дар шакли  а [ә] пеш аз исмҳое,  ки бо  ҳамсадо оғоз мешаванд,  истифода  мешавад: a computer, a notebook, a classroom, a book, a student.

Артикли номуайянии  an [әn] пеш аз исмҳое, ки бо садонок оғоз меёбанд,  мавриди истифода аст:  an office, an hour, an umbrella, an offer.

Дар забони тоҷикӣ вазифаи артиклро фонемаи – е  ва пасоянди -ро ичро мекунанд.

Духтаре, ки дар хона буд, машқро навишт, китобро хонд.

Артикли  сифрӣ, пеш аз исмҳои муайянӣ ва номуайянӣ тамоман истифода намешавад дида мешавад. Артикл бо исмҳое, ки баъди он шумораи миқдорӣ меояд, истифода намешавад.

Артикли муайянии The

Артикли муайянии the бо ҳамаи намуди исмҳо ҳам дар шумораи танҳо ва ҳам дар шумораи ҷамъ истифода бурда мешавад. Пеш аз калимаҳое, ки бо ҳарфҳои ҳамсадо оғоз мешаванд, чун [ðә] талаффуз мешавад ва пеш аз калимаҳое, ки бо садонок сар мешаванд,  ҳамчун [ði] хонда мешавад: the company, the book,the yard, the author, the hour, the office.

Артикли муайянии -the  дар мавриди зерин бештар корбаст мешавад:

  1. пеш аз исмҳое, ки дар ҷинси хеш ягонаанд:

the Sun, the sky, the Moon, the universe, the Earth.

  1. пеш аз ном ва насабе, ки як оиларо мефаҳмонад:

The Browns are very nice family.

  1. пеш аз исмҳое, ки шумораҳои тартибиро муайян мекунад:

We came to Dushanbe on the second day.

  1. пеш аз исмҳое, ки 4 самти заминро ифода мекунанд:

The East, the North, the West, the South.

  1. пеш аз сифати дараҷаи олӣ:

Ahmad is the best student of our group

  1. пеш аз номи якчанд давлатҳо  ва ноҳияҳо:

The Soviet Union, The United States, the Ukraine.

  1. пеш аз номҳои уқёнус, дарё, баҳр ва қаторкӯҳҳо:

The Atlantic Ocean, The Baltic Sea, the Ural, the Volga, the Sorez, the Panj  ва ҳоказо

  1. пеш аз ашёҳои аниқ:

The book you have told me about is very interesting

Дар мавридҳои зерин артиклҳо  истифода намешавад:

1.пеш аз исмҳои хос:

Donetsk is the center of the mining industry in the  south of the  country.

2.пеш аз исмҳои  шумориданашавандае, ки боигарии табииро мефаҳмонад:

Coal is a sedimentary rock of organic origin.

3.пеш аз исмҳое, ки муоширатро, рафторро  ифода мекунанд:

Good bye, friend.

4.пеш аз исмҳое, ки яке аз аъзоёни оиларо мефаҳмонад:

Have you spoken to Father about it?

5.пеш аз номгӯи фанҳо:

The first year students study mathematics, physics.

Артиклҳоро  дар ҷойҳои холи гузоред.  Put in articles.

1).1. His brother is … pilot.    2. My friends is  …  teacher.  3. She has got … tape-recorder.  4. This is … Russian book.  5. I am … student.  6. The teacher doesn’t write all … new words on … blackboard.

2).Ҷои нуқтахоро пур кунед ва нақл кунед. Fill and retell the text.

A FORGETFUL TOURIST

Once _____ foreign tourist travelling  in _____ France came to _____ Paris for ____ few days. On _____ very (самый) first day of his stay in _____ French capital he sent _____ telegram to his wife with ______ name and ______ address of ____ hotel where he was staying, and then he decided to go out and see _____ places of ____ interest in ____ capital. He took _____ long walk along _____ streets of city, visited _____ few museums and picture galleries and by _____ end of ______ day felt terribly tired. He wanted to return to _____ hotel to take ______ rest there, but suddenly he realized that he remember neither _____ name nor _____ address of ____ hotel. He felt quite lost and slowly walked along ____ street not knowing what to do. Suddenly he found himself in front of ____ post office. He guicly ran inside and said to _____ clerk [kla:k] (почтовый чиновник) in ____ excited voice, “Give me_____ telegram form, please” ____ “Here you are”, ____ clerk answered, giving him ____ form. It didn’t take ____ tourist long to fill it in minute later he handed in ____ telegram and paid _____ money. _____ tourist’s wife was greatly surprised when _____ hour later she received _____ second telegram from her husband. “Send me my address at once

 3) Ба ҷои нуқтаҳо артиклҳои лозимиро гузоред. Insert the articles.

1.…day, … fine day, …film, …Italian film, …shop, …open shop, …hotel, …old hotel, …little hotel.

2. on … fine day, in …empty tent, in … heavy boat, on…old plane, in…old shop,in..bad old hospital, at …fine old hotel.

4) Дар баъзе ҷумлаҳо артикл нишон дода нашудааст.Ба ҷои  лозимӣ артиклҳоро гузоред ва нависед.

  1. He is happy man.He”s happy. 2. It”s fine day.It”s fine. 3. She is old. She”s old lady. 4. My flat is little.It”s little flat.5. He”s Tajik businessman. He”s Tajik.6. It”snot easy test> It”s not easy. 7. His plan is not simple. It”s not simple plan.

5. Ба ҷои нуқтаҳо артикл  гузоред ва нақл кунед. Insert the articles and retell the text.

A JOKE ON THE HUMORIST.

Mark Twain … famous  American writer and humorist was alsaw known in his days as … lecture and … teller of  … funny stories. One day he was walking down … street of … small town where he was going to deliver … lecture that evening. He met …young man, … native of that town, who told him that he had … old uncle who never laughed or smiled. Mark Twain  doubted it and told … young man to bring his uncle to his lecture that evening. He said he would make him laugh.

In … evening  Mark Twain saw … young man and his uncle come into … hall and sat down in …first row. Mark Twain spoke directly at them. He told some rather funny stories but he never saw … old man either smile or laugh. Then Mark Twain told …funniest story in his repertoire, but much to his surprise … old man’s face remained unchanged.greatly disappointed M. Twain left … platform. Later Mark Twain was telling … friend of his about … incident. ‘’ Oh’’ , said his friend. ‘’Didn’t  the young man warn you that his uncle had been deaf for years?’’

Супоришҳо барои худсанҷӣ. Test.

  1. Артикл чист?
  2. Пеш аз кадом ҳиссаи нутқ артикл гузошта мешавад?
  3. Кадом навъи артиклҳоро медонед?
  4. Агар сифат пеш аз исмҳо ояд, артикл ба куҷо гузошта мешавад?
  5. Фарқияти артикли “а ва” an– ро гӯед.
  6. Артикли номуайянū кай истифода мешавад?
  7. Оё артикли номуайянū пеш аз исмҳо дар шакли ҷамъ корбаст мешавад?
  8. Артикли муайянū кай истифода мешавад?
  9. Оё артикли муайянū пеш аз исми ҷамъ кор фармуда мешавад?
  10. Ба фикри шумо артикли «a ва an» нишондиҳандаи чанд навъи артикл аст ва  фарқияти онхо дар чист?
  11. Дар чӣ ҳолат ин артикл истифода   мешавад ва  муайянкунандаи кадом ҳиссаи нутқ аст?
  12. Дар ҷумлаҳои: It is my family. Write his name. Let’s see her flat., артикл истифода нашудааст, барои чӣ?
  13. Ин артикл бо кадом пасванди забони тоҷикӣ монанд аст ва фарқияти он дар чист?

Fill in the blanks with a, an, the articles. Put x where no article is necessary. Separate answers with a comma and a space as needed

  1. —- Tower of London is —- popular tourist attraction.
  2. Newcastle is —- town in —- north of —- England.
  3. —- Princess lives in —- palace in —- London.
  4. —- Buckingham Palace is where —- Queen of England officially lives.
  5. She bought —- expensive necklace at —- Harrods.
  6. They went for —- stroll around —- St James’ Park.
  7. The supermarket is in —- Kendell Street opposite —- Lloyds Bank.
  8. —- hotel where they held their wedding reception was called —- Grand Hotel.
  9. Anna was born in —- Italy but she lives in —- U.S.A. now.
  10. The convict is in —- prison on —- outskirts of town.
  11. His favorite newspaper is —- Guardian.
  12. —- Gatwick Airport is in —- southern England.
  13. —- Duchess of York opened —- new hospital in —- center of London.
  14. He went on —- expensive holiday to —- Bahamas.
  15. —- Statue of Liberty is in —- New York.
  16. —- National Park was opened —- last week by —- mayor.
  17. —- expedition to —- South Pole needs a lot of careful planning.
  18. —- Odeon cinema is in —- Appleton Street just past —- library.
  19. Last month I saw —- film and then went to —- concert. —- film was brilliant but —- concert was boring.
  20. There are three cars parked outside: —- Mercedes, —- Jaguar and —- Fiat. Mine is —- Fiat.
  21. —- Harrods is a huge department store near —- Kensington Gardens.

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