Мавзӯъ: Сохти ҷумлаҳои забони англисӣ. Ҷумлаҳои саволӣ (саволҳои махсус). Замонҳои гурӯҳи Indefinite.
- Лексика: Text: “Computers machine”
A clever person solves a problem.
A wise person avoids it.
Шахси доно масъаларо ҳал мекунад.
Шахси хирадманд онро аз байн мебарад.
Одатан сохти ҷумлаҳои забони англисӣ сода ё мураккаб мешавад. Ҷумлаҳое, ки аз ду ё зиёда ҷумлаҳои сода иборатанд, ҷумлаҳои мураккаб ҳастанд.
The machine can flash its answers on a screen, can print them on paper, store them away on magnet tapes or cards.
Замонҳои гурӯҳи Indefinite.
- Past Indefinite Tense
|Subject||+ verb + ed|
|Subject||+ did not||+ infinitive without to|
|Did||+ subject||+ infinitive without to|
|Did not||+ subject||+ infinitive without to|
John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
My father died last year.
He lived in Fiji in 1976.
We crossed the Channel yesterday.
- Present Indefinite Tense
|I think||Do I think?||I do not think|
|You think||Do you think?||You do not think|
|He thinks||Does he think?||He does not think|
|She thinks||Does she think?||She does not think|
|It thinks||Does it think?||It does not think|
|We think||Do we think?||We do not think.|
|They think||Do they think?||They do not think.|
He drinks tea at breakfast.
She only eats fish.
They watch television regularly.
For repeated actions or events
We catch the bus every morning.
It rains every afternoon in the hot season.
They drive to Monaco every summer.
For general truths
Water freezes at zero degrees.
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
Her mother is Peruvian.
For instructions or directions
Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water.
You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.
For fixed arrangements
His mother arrives tomorrow.
Our holiday starts on the 26th March
With future constructions
She’ll see you before she leaves.
We’ll give it to her when she arrives.
- Future Indefinite Tense
|Subject||will||infinitive without to|
Contractions – Ихтисораҳо
I will = I’ll
We will = we’ll
You will = you’ll
He will = he’ll
She will = she’ll
They will = they’ll
Will not = won’t
Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед:
|an electronic system||системаи элентронӣ|
|an electronic device||таҷҳизоти электронӣ|
|an electronic machine||мошинаи электронӣ|
|a magnetic tape||лентаи магнитӣ|
|a symbol||аломат, нишон|
|a panel desk||панел|
|a punched card||перфокорт|
|to flash||равшан кардан|
|to print||чоп кардан, ҳуруф чидан|
|to store||иттиллоотро ба хотираи компутер ҳифз кардан|
|to produce the facts||асноду ҳуҷҷатҳоро баровардан (экран)|
|to process||маълумотро кор карда баромадан, ислоҳ кардан|
|to complete problems||масъалаҳо (нуқсон)-ро ҳал кардан|
|to feed information to the machine||ба компутер маълумот дохил кардан|
Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
All of us think about a computer. That’s why we ask: “What is a computer?”
– A computer is one of the modern technologies using everywhere. It is a complex instrument made up of hundreds of electronic devices, miles of electronic wire. Its complex electronic brains produce information. This information is stored on magnetic tapes or punched cards. Who can feed the computer information? – An operator can feed figures and symbols into the machine. When an operator wants to receive answers, he asks the machine in a special language to process the information taken from storage. The electronic machine can give any answer or a combination of possible answers. At a panel desk connected to the instrument, the machine can flash its answers on a screen, can print them on paper, and store them away on magnetic tapes or punched cards.
Of course, more than 100,000 pieces of information can do a lot of operations. For example, the computer can multiply large numbers. How long does it take the computer to multiply large numbers? In one third of a second a computer can multiply two 127 digit numbers. In one whole second, it can add 4,000 five digit numbers. In two seconds it can complete 320 long-division problems. The same machine does the work of thousands of trained mathematicians in any given time of period and without the mistakes. But … it is human beings who do the thinking, who feed information to the machines. The computer only helps us to find answers and produce facts faster and more accurately. Machines work for us, but they do not think for us.
Бо хислатномаи компютер шинос шавед:
Машқи 2. Ба саволҳои зерин ҷавоб диҳед:
- What is a computer?
- What functions has a computer?
- Why do people extremely need a computer nowadays?
- What is the connection between computer brains and man’s mind?
- Is the electronic system of a computer very complex or simple?
- Do electronic brains of a computer produce information?
- How many pieces of information can be stored in one machine?
- What does the computer machine flash?
Машқи 3. Гуфтугӯро хонед ва иҷро кунед.
– This is Tom Smith speaking.
– I would like to speak to Mr Brown. / Can I speak to Mr Brown?
– I would like to leave a message for Ms Jones. Can you ask her to call me back as soon as possible?
– I’ll make sure she gets the message.
– I’m sorry, I don’t understand/ I can’t hear you very well.
– Could you say that again? Can you speak up a little?
– I’m calling to make an appointment with Mr Brown.
– I’m calling about the problem you reported this morning.
– I’m calling about the computer you have ordered.
– I’m sorry, I’m in a meeting/ I’m very busy at the moment.
– I’ll get back to you as soon as possible.
– Can I call you back this afternoon?
Машқи 4. Шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро, ки дар поении ҷадвал оварда шудааст – ёбед ва дар сутунчаи муқобил гузоред:
- The machine which is used for sending or receiving copies of primed material, letters, pictures, etc. along a telephone line.
- An international network of computers. It has electronic mail and provides a large amount of information.
- An electronic machine that can store and recall information, do many processes on it.
- An electronic system which joints a group of computers. People can send messages to each other on their computers.
- A system for sending or receiving speech over long distances.
Машқи 5. Шарҳ ё ҳаммазмуни ибораҳои зеринро аз матн ёбед ва тарҷума кунед:
- an electronic system of a computer
- to take from storage
- to feed the information to the machine
- a punched card
- to complete long-division problems
- to flash answers on a screen
Машқи 6. Ҷойҳои холиро хаттӣ пур кунед:
- The electronic … is very complex.
- More than 100,000 pieces …, and when the operator wants answers, he asks … and for solving the problem.
- In one third of … two 127-digit …
- The same machine does … in any given time period, and …
- The machine can flash …
- … can give any answer or …
- But it is …, who do the thinking, who … to find answer and …
- Machine … for us, but they do not … for us.
- … of electronic devices, miles of electronic wire.
- … an operator feeds facts, figures and symbols into the machine, to be …
Машқи 7. Дуруст ё нодуруст будани ҷумлаҳои зеринро муайян кунед:
- The electronic system of a computer is very simple.
- More than 50 pieces of information can be stored in one machine.
- In second a computer can multiply two 970-digit numbers.
- Machines think for us, but they do not work for us.
- The computer cannot do a lot of operations.
Машқи 8. Номи таҷҳизоти зеринро аз рӯи таърифот ёбед:
- student using a computer for intertainment while travelling;
- large company processing payroll data;
- travelling salesperson giving marketing presentations;
- large scientific organisation processing work on nuclear research;
- businessperson keeping in touch with clients while travelling;
- graphic designer;
- secretary doing general office work.
Машқи 9. Матни навро хонед, тарҷума кунед ва замонҳои ҳозира, гузашта ва ояндаашро (гурӯҳи Simple) ёбед:
BILL GATES, THE SOFTWARE KING
Most of the computers in the world use software invented by Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft Inc. of Redmond, Wash. Software is the set of programs that make computers – whether business or personal – perform various tasks.
Gates was born in Seattle, Wash., in 1955. As a boy, he was bright and curious. He was active in Scouting, reaching Life Scout rank in Troop 186. He especially loved hiking, camping and other outdoor adventures.
But Gates was obsessed with computers. While a student at Harvard University in 1975, Gates and a friend, Paul Allen, developed a computer language for an early version of the personal computer. Then Microsoft was born. Gates went on to develop operating systems, such as MS-DOS, and software programs.
Thanks to Microsoft, Gates is now one of the richest men in America. He is worth more than $8 billion.
A technical wizard and a fierce business competitor, Gates sees great things ahead for computers. He says they «are really going to change a lot of things in the world – the way we work, the way we play and entertain ourselves and even the way we are educated».
Машқи 10. Аз забони тоҷикӣ ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:
- Зиёда аз 100,000 ҷузъи иттиллоотро метавон дар як мошина маҳфуз нигоҳ дошт.
- Компутерҳо барои мо кор мекунанд, аммо онҳо барои мо фикр карда наметавонанд.
- Системаи электронии компутер хеле мураккаб аст.
- Мошинаи электронӣ дар як вақт метавонад вазифаи ҳазорон риёзидонҳоро бе хато иҷро кунад.
- Дар сеяк сония компутер метавонад 2 рақамро зарб занад.