Кор бо матнҳо
Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед.
All of us think about a computer. That’s why we ask: “What is a computer?” – A computer is one of the modern technologies using everywhere. It is a complex instrument made up of hundreds of electronic devices, miles of electronic wire. Its complex electronic brains produce information. This information is stored on magnetic tapes or punched cards. Who feeds the computer information? – An operator can feed figures and symbols into the machine. When an operator wants to receive answers, he asks the machine in a special language to process the information taken from storage. The electronic machine can give any answer or a combination of possible answers. At a panel desk connected to the instrument, the machine can flash its answers on a screen, can print them on paper, and store them away on magnet tapes or cards.
Of course, more than 100,000 pieces of information can be do a lot of operations. For example, the computer can multiply large numbers. How long does it take the computer to multiply large numbers? In one third of a second a computer can multiply two 127 digit numbers. In one whole second, it can add 4,000 five digit numbers. In two seconds it can complete 320 long-division problems. The same machine does the work of thousands of trained mathematicians in any given time period and without the mistakes. But … human beings to thinking, feed information to the machines. The computer only helps us to find answers and produce facts faster and more accurately. Machines work for us, but they do not think for us.
Машқи 2. Ба саволҳои зерин ҷавоб диҳед:
- What is a computer?
- What functions has a computer?
- Why do people extremely need a computer nowadays?
- What is the connection between computer brains and man’s mind?
- Is the electronic system of a computer very complex or simple?
- Do electronic brains of a computer produce information?
- How many pieces of information can be stored in one machine?
- What does the computer machine flash?
Машқи 3. Таносуби дурусти калимаҳоро дар сутунчаи муқобил ёбед:
- The machine which is used for sending or receiving copies of primed material, letters, pictures, etc. along a telephone line.
- An international network of computers. It has electronic mail and provides a large amount of information.
- An electronic machine that can store and recall information, do many processes on it.
- An electronic system which joints a group of computers. People can send messages to each other on their computers.
- A system for sending or receiving speech over long distances.
Машқи 4. Ибораҳои зеринро аз матн ҷустуҷӯ карда ёбед ва тарҷума кунед:
- an electronic system of a computer
- to take from storage
- to feed the information to the machine
- a punched card
- to complete long-division problems
- to flash answers on a screen
Машқи 5. Ҷойҳои холиро пур кунед:
The electronic … is very complex.
More than 100,000 pieces …, and when the operator wants answers, he asks … and for solving the problem.
In one third of … two 127-digit …
The same machine does … in any given time period, and …
The machine can flash …
… can give any answer or …
But it is …, who do the thinking, who … to find answer and …
Machine … for us, but they do not … for us.
… of electronic devices, miles of electronic wire.
… an operator feeds facts, figures and symbols into the machine, to be …
Машқи 6. Дуруст ё нодуруст будани ҷумлаҳои зеринро муайян кунед:
The electronic system of a computer very simple.
More than 50 pieces of information can be stored in one machine.
In second a computer can multiply two 970-digit numbers.
Machines think for us, but they do not work for us.
The computer cannot do a lot of operations.
Машқи 7. Таносуби шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро ёбед:
|1. purchase||a) property or other goods that you promise to give someone if you cannot pay back the money they lend you|
|2. collateral||b) the things that a company owns|
|3. assets||c) something you buy, or the act of buying it|
|4. budget||d) the amount of money that you have to pay in order to buy, do, or produce something|
|5. costs||e) the money that is available to an organization or person, or a plan of how it will be spent|
Машқи 8. Калима ва ибороти зеринро ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. Активҳои моддӣ||6. тағирёбанда|
|2. тобеият, ҳисоботдиҳӣ||7. қурби асъор (нарх)|
|3. механизми нархгузорӣ; таъини қимат (нарх)||8. сарф, харҷ|
|4. пули фурӯш (савдо);||9. шӯъбаи молия|
|5. капитали гардон (маблағ барои тиҷорат, захира барои пешбурди тиҷорат)||10. сохтани буҷет|
Машқи 9. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. to predict with reasonable accuracy||6. financial models|
|2. overhead expenses||7.human resources|
|3. business budgeting||8. financial spreadsheet|
|4. mathematical models||9. inputs and outputs|
|5. profit||10. compile budget|
Машқи 10. Ҷавоби дурустро интихоб кунед:
- The budget of a company is usually compiled ………..
- a) every week b) every month c) annually
- ……… is a fundamental tool to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even.
- a) budget b) financial model c) overhead expense
- Traditionally the ……….. compiles the company’s budget.
- a) manager b) accountant c) Finance department
- When a company owns some material things they are called ………
- a) liabilities b) tangible assets c) intangible assets
- The managers involved in the budget process have …………….
- a) responsibility b) duties c) accountability
Машқи 11. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
BASIC CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS
A method of encryption and decryption is called, a cipher. Some cryptographic methods rely on the secrecy of the algorithms; such algorithms are only of historical interest and are not adequate for real-world needs. All modern algorithms use a key to control encryption and decryption; a message can be decrypted only if the key matches the encryption key. The key used for decryption can be different from the encryption key, but for most algorithms they are the same. There are two classes of key-based algorithms, symmetric (or secret-key) and asymmetric (or public-key) algorithms. The difference is that symmetric algorithms use the same key for encryption and decryption (or the decryption key is easily derived from the encryption key), whereas asymmetric algorithms use a different key for encryption and decryption, and the decryption key cannot be derived from the encryption key. (5)
Symmetric algorithms can be divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. Stream ciphers can encrypt a single bit of plaintext at a time, whereas block ciphers take a number of bits (typically 64 bits in modern ciphers), and encrypt them as a single unit. Many symmetric ciphers are described on the algorithms page. Asymmetric ciphers (also called public-key algorithms or generally public-key cryptography) permit the encryption key to be public (it can even be published in a newspaper), allowing anyone to encrypt with the key, whereas only the proper recipient (who knows the decryption key) can decrypt the message. The encryption key is also called the public key and the decryption key is the private key or secret key.
Modern cryptographic algorithms cannot really be executed by humans. Strong cryptographic algorithms are designed to be executed by computers or specialized hardware devices. In most applications, cryptography is done in computer software.
Generally, symmetric algorithms are much faster to execute on a computer than asymmetric ones. In practice they are often used together, so that a public-key algorithm is used to encrypt a randomly generated encryption key, and the random key is used to encrypt the actual message using a symmetric algorithm.