Lesson-3

Free Online English Classes. Lesson 3 – Дарси 3

  1. Грамматика: Тарзи мафъул (The Passive Voice). Ҷумлаҳои саволӣ (Interrogative sentences).
  2. Лексика: Text: “Basic cryptographic algorithms

Тарзи мафъул (Passive voice)
Тарзи мафъулро ҳангоме муайян мекунанд, ки агар шахс хоҳад афзалияти хабарро нисбат ба мубтадо нишон диҳад.
Дар ҳолатҳои зерин тарзи мафъулро метавон истифода кард:

  1. Агар иҷрокунандаи амал номаълум бошад:

The window was broken an hour ago.

2.Вақте мо ба ин ё он навъи ҳодиса мутаваҷҷеҳ бошем, на ба шахси иҷрокунанда:
His watch was stolen in the street.

  1. Вақте ҳолат ё вазият аз шахс амалеро қатъӣ тақозо (талаб) кунад:

Smoking is not allowed.
Дар поён формулаи умумии тарзи мафъул дода шудааст:

To be + V III форма
To be + v + ed

Somebody (subject) cleans this room (object) every day. (Active voice)
This room (subject) is cleaned every day. (Passive voice)

Эзоҳ: Пуркунандаи ҷумлаи аввал (this room) дар ҷумлаи дувум ба вазифаи мубтадо омадааст.

Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед ва азёд кунед:
no longer – на ин ки, зиёд не, акнун не
military – ҳарбӣ
demystify – кушодан, кашф кардан
advantages – афзалиятҳо, бартариҳо
provide – таъмин кардан
modern – замонавӣ, муосир
terminology – технология
be presented – муаррифӣ шудан
speculative – назарӣ, назария
correctness – дурустӣ, ростӣ
suppose – тасаввур кардан, хаёл кардан, фикр кардан
receiver –  қабулкунанда
electronic communication – муоширати электронӣ
call – занг задан, номидан
outsider – бегона
encryption – рамзбандӣ, рамзнависӣ
encrypted message – мактуби махфӣ, мактуби рамзнок
retrieve – қабул кардан
decryption – рамзкушоӣ
perform – иҷро кардан
proper – махсус, хоса
breaking – вайрон кардан, шикастан, рамзшиканӣ
without – бе
practitioner – таҷрибаомӯз
cryptanalysts – рамзкушо (бе калид)
authentication – тафриқа
application – замима-барнома
branch – шоха
however – аммо
a cipher – рамз, аломат
symmetric – симметрикӣ (алгоритми махфӣ)
a single unit – ягона, яклухт
method – метод, услуб
public key – калиди оммавӣ

rely on – эътимод кардан

Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:

BASIC CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS

A method of encryption and decryption is called, a cipher. Some cryptographic methods rely on the secrecy of the algorithms; such algorithms are only of historical interest and are not adequate for real-world needs. All modern algorithms use a key to control encryption and decryption; a message can be decrypted only if the key matches the encryption key. The key used for decryption can be different from the encryption key, but for most algorithms they are the same. There are two classes of key-based algorithms, symmetric (or secret-key) and asymmetric (or public-key) algorithms. The difference is that symmetric algorithms use the same key for encryption and decryption (or the decryption key is easily derived from the encryption key), whereas asymmetric algorithms use a different key for encryption and decryption, and the decryption key cannot be derived from the encryption key.
Symmetric algorithms can be divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. Stream ciphers can encrypt a single bit of plaintext at a time, whereas block ciphers take a number of bits (typically 64 bits in modern ciphers), and encrypt them as a single unit. Many symmetric ciphers are described on the algorithms page. Asymmetric ciphers (also called public-key algorithms or generally public-key cryptography) permit the encryption key to be public (it can even be published in a newspaper), allowing anyone to encrypt with the key, whereas only the proper recipient (who knows the decryption key) can decrypt the message. The encryption key is also called the public key and the decryption key is the private key or secret key.
Modern cryptographic algorithms cannot really be executed by humans. Strong cryptographic algorithms are designed to be executed by computers or specialized hardware devices. In most applications, cryptography is done in computer software.
Generally, symmetric algorithms are much faster to execute on a computer than asymmetric ones. In practice they are often used together, so that a public-key algorithm is used to encrypt a randomly generated encryption key, and the random key is used to encrypt the actual message using a symmetric algorithm.

Машқи 2. Таносуби шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро ёбед:

1. purchasea) property or other goods that you promise to give someone if you cannot pay back the money they lend you
2. collateralb) the things that a company owns
3. assetsc) something you buy, or the act of buying it
4. budgetd) the amount of money that you have to pay in order to buy, do, or produce something
5. costse) the money that is available to an organization or person, or a plan of how it will be spent

Машқи 3. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:

1. to predict6. financial models
2. overhead expenses7. human resources department
3. business budgeting8. financial spreadsheet
4. mathematical models9. inputs and outputs
5. profit10. compile budget

Машқи 4. Ҷавоби дурустро интихоб кунед:

  1. The budget of a company is usually compiled ………..
  2. a) every week b) every month c) annually
  3. ……… is a fundamental tool to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even.
  1. a) budget b) financial model c) overhead expense
  2. Traditionally the ……….. compiles the company’s budget.
  3. a) manager b) accountant c) Finance department
  4. When a company owns some material things they are called ………
  5. a) liabilities b) tangible assets c) intangible assets
  6. The managers involved in the budget process have …………….
  7. a) responsibility b) duties c) accountability

Машқи 5. Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед:
dough – нақд, маблағ, сармоя (сленг)
spend yourself in a hole – аз ҳад зиёд харҷ кардан
sky-high – хеле гарон

Ҳангоми ҷавоб, аз калима ва ибораҳои зерин истифода баред:

To my mind …In my experience …
In my opinion …As far as I understand …
On the one hand,
…on the other hand
From my point of view …
If my memory serves me right …If I am not mistaken …
It seems to me that …Personally, I think …
My personal view is that …I am sure/certain/convinced that …
The fact is that …This proves that …
It is obvious that …There is no doubt that …

Машқи 6. Ҷумлаҳои зеринро аз англисӣ ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума карда, тарзи мафъул (Passive voice) ва фоил (Active voice)-ро ёбед.

– Millions of e-mails are sent every day.
= People send millions of e-mails every day.
– Hundreds of e-mails are being sent at this very moment.
= People are sending hundreds of e-mails at this very moment.
– The e-mail has been sent.
= Somebody has sent the e-mail.
– Ten years ago much fewer e-mails were sent than today.
= Ten years ago people sent much fewer e-mails than today.
– The e-mail was just being sent when you called.
= Somebody was just sending the e-mail when you called.
– The e-mail had been already sent by the time you called.
= Somebody had already sent the e-mail by the time you called.
– The e-mail is going to be sent tomorrow.
= Somebody is going to send the e-mail tomorrow.
– I think an e-mail will be sent to you.
= I think somebody will send an e-mail to you.
– The e-mail will have been sent by Friday.
= Somebody will have sent the e-mail by Friday.
– The e-mail must be sent.
= Somebody must send the e-mail.

 Машқи 7. Бо истифода аз калимаву ибора қиссае нависед:
Write complain letter to the company Computer International for Mr. Stratton.

You bought a lap-top computer. In three months your computer broke down but you have a warranty period of one year. You gave the computer to the Service Department. You were promised to get your computer ready within 2 weeks but in 2 months you still did not get your lap-top computer.

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