Lesson-5

Free Online English Classes. Lesson 5 – Дарси 5

Мавзӯъ: I.Грамматика: Сифати феълӣ, таркиби сифати феълӣ ва хусусиятҳои тарҷумаи он

  1. Лексика: Text: “Amos. Maintenance and Purchase

Сифати феълӣ чист?

– Он шакли дигари феълӣ буда, масалан феълҳои «навишта истодааст», «навишташуда» метавонанд ифодагари он бошанд. Ин феълҳо аз рӯи шахсу шумора ва ҷинс тағйирнопазир буда, аммо дар ҷумла ба вазифаи хабар истифода намешаванд. Лекин онҳоро бештар ба вазифаи сифат ё зарф ба кор мебаранд. Сифати феълӣ дар забони англисӣ ба мисли сифат перомуни исм маълумот медиҳад. Сифати феълӣ дар забони англисӣ 2 хел мешавад: сифати феълии I (Participle I) ва сифати феълии II (Participle II). Аз ин лиҳоз, ин ду шакли феълӣ дар ҷумла як вазифаро иҷро намекунанд. Тафовути байни онҳоро бо мисолҳои зерин шарҳ медиҳем:

Participle I – сифати феълии I
A surprising man (V+ing) инсони ба ҳайратомада (шахс худ ба ҳайрат омадааст).

Participle II – сифати феълии II
A surprised man (V+ed) инсони ҳайратзада (аммо ин шахсро чизе ё касе ба ҳайрат овардааст).

Барои дарки қоидаи мазкур, ибораҳои зеринро тарҷума кунед:
a man, eating … ___________________________________________
a man, eaten … ____________________________________________

Сифати феълӣ дар ҷумла пеш аз исм омада, пас аз он низ меояд:
a joyful man, a surprised man
a man creative at work
a man laughing at his own jokes

Сифати феълие, ки одатан пас аз исм меояд, якҷоя бо муайянкунанда меояд. Сифатҳои феълӣ бо зарфҳои дараҷаи олӣ низ паҳлӯи ҳам меянд.
a very surprised man

Сифати феълии II (Participle II) танҳо як шакл дорад: to go – went – gone; to see – saw – seen); алоҳида истифода мешаванд ва ҳамчунин ҳангоми сохтани шаклҳои мутлақ (Perfect) ва тарзи мафъул (Passive) корбаст мешавад.

Бояд қайд кард, ки сифати феълии II (Participle II) дар феълҳои дуруст, ба шакли замони гузашта монанд аст, масалан:
laughed – laughed – хандидхандида
He laughed – Ӯ хандид
A laughed woman – Зани хандида

Машқи 1. Нахуст тарҷума кунед, баъдан сифати феълии II-ро ёбед:

  1. They listed the setting. Setting listed in this document was not full.
  2. They followed the instruction. The instructions followed by the group appeared to be very useful.
  3. The company sent the manuals to the users. The users got new programs sent by the firm.
  4. The program operated machines without failure. These are the machines operated by the program recently tested.
  5. These diagrams are simpler than those presented in the article.
  6. These are problems solved by a digital computer.

Бо калима ва ибораҳои нав шинос шавед:
AMOS M&P program – барномаи хизматрасонӣ ва хариди «AMOS»
reporting – ҳисоботдиҳӣ
vendor – ширкати таъминкунанда
confirmation – тасдиқ
purchase order – супориш барои харид
query – талабот, дархост
requisitions – марказхои бакайдгирӣ (талабот, дархост)
items – амалиёт
point of view – нуқтаи назар
acquire – шинос кардан
integrated – муттаҳид, мутараққӣ, ягона
maintenance – хизматрасонӣ
cost – нарх, aрзиш
stock control – назорати саҳмия
purchasing – xарид
introduction – муқаддима
geographically spread – паҳншавии ҷуғрофӣ
spare parts – сатрхои холи
automatically – ба таври автоматӣ
likewise – ба монанди ин, бо ин ҳама
register – ба кайд гирифтан
installation – насб
headquarters – ситоди маркази
typically – ба таври мукарари
certain – махсус, алоҳида, ҳатмӣ
delivery – расонидан
job – кор, вазифа

Машқи 2. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
AMOS M&P
This User Guide is for users of the AMOS Maintenance & Purchase (AMOS M&P) program. This document is written from the point of view that the reader understands the requirements of the job and now needs to acquire an understanding of how to use AMOS M&P in fulfilling those requirements.
AMOS M&P is a Windows application for integrated management of maintenance work and costs, stock control and purchasing in geographically spread organisations.

Introduction to AMOS M&P
AMOS M&P is a computer-based system for planning and reporting maintenance, and for performing stock control and stock purchasing.
The different functions in AMOS M&P work together so that if you have reported performing a maintenance job that requires certain spare parts, the spare parts will automatically be listed in the stock control records as removed in connection with such and such a job.
Likewise, the purchasing function will hold a purchasing order as active until the goods are registered as received… when they will be added into the stock control records.
AMOS М&Р allows you to see what has been spent on various maintenance activities or purchases, and what is planned or budgeted to be spent in the future.
AMOS M&P has been developed specifically for companies and organisations with physical plants or installations that are geographically distributed. That is, where maintenance, stock control and requisitioning take place at one or more local installations, while purchasing and transport planning typically take place at a central headquarters.
Many AMOS M&P customers are shipping lines, but AMOS M&P is also used to great advantage by manufacturing companies and transport/delivery organisations.

Машқи 3. Ҷумлаҳои зеринро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:

  1. (When, while) working on my report, I read a number of interesting articles.
  2. Not knowing his address, we could not write him
  3. Being in London, I could not help them.

Машқи 4. Зарбулмасал ва мақолҳои зеринро тарҷума кунед:

  1. Money saved is money gained.
  2. A trouble shared is a trouble halved.
  3. Entering or leaving a room with ladies, don’t rush before them. Remember the golden rule of every gentleman: “Ladies first”.
  4. Among the things most often opened by mistake is the mouth.

Машқи 5. Ба шакли сифати феълӣ нигоҳ карда, сипас тарҷума кунед:

А:

  1. Feeling tired, I went to bed early.
  2. I cut myself shaving.
  3. Having finished our work, we went home.
  4. After finishing our work, we went home.
  5. Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.
  6. Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around.
  7. Having already seen the film twice, I didn’t want to go to the cinema

B:

  1. Only one working copy can be made.
  2. The program being executed is written in assembly language.
  3. The program written in assembly language is called an assembler.
  4. Having executed the instruction, the program failed.
  5. Having been executed the programs were considered to be perfect ones.
  6. Working at home, it is reasonable to use a portable computer.
  7. Having made the necessary changes, they got down to business.
  8. When testing the new model, the group used the most modern methods of control.
  9. When tested, the model broke down.

C:

  1. Buying a computer, you should be very careful.
  2. Data compressed by this technique won’t be recovered.
  3. Data being compressed is of great importance to us.
  4. When compiling the program, I got some errors.
  5. When archiving, ARJ doesn’t sort filenames.
  6. When performed, the program abend occured.
  7. Having written this program, we solved our problem at last.

Машқи 6. Аз ду ҷумла, бо истифода аз Participle I ва II як ҷумла созед:

Намуна: I got home. I was feeling very tired.
Feeling very tired I got home.

1)  The man slipped. He was getting off the bus.
2)  We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.
3)  They had dinner. Then they continued their journey.
4)  She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.
5)  The man wasn’t able to understand English. So he didn’t know what I said.

Машқи 7. Тарҷума кунед:

  1. They saw him changing the program.
  2. A man always wants a computer not being vulnerable.
  3. I have just had the newest version installed.

Машқи 8. Тарҷума кунед:

  1. Personal computers being widely used, their characteristics are improved.
  2. The computers of the 1940’s being not reliable, scientists started improving them.
  3. England being a constitutional monarchy, the Queen of England is only the formal ruler.

Машқи 9. Ҷумлаҳоро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:

  1. Explained again, the rule became quite clear to everybody.

The rule explained, we started doing the exercise.
The rule being explained is not easy.
The rule explained is difficult.
If explained, the rule will not seem difficult.
We would like it explained again.

  1. The man saved was a Norvegian sailor.

All the children having been saved, everybody felt relieved (to relieve сабук кардан, осон кардан).
Having saved the boy’s life, the doctor felt relieved.
The passengers are being saved.
I want him saved.

Машқи 10. Зери феълҳо хат кашед (Participle I,II, Past, Present, Future Simple Tenses, Perfect, Countinious):
This User Guide is for users of the AMOS Maintenance & Purchase (AMOS M&P) program. This document is written from the point of view that the reader understands the requirements of the job and now needs to acquire an understanding of how to use AMOS M&P in fulfilling those requirements.
The different functions in AMOS M&P work together so that if you have reported performing a maintenance job that requires certain spare parts, the spare parts will automatically be listed in the stock control records as removed in connection with such and such a job.

Машқи 11. Ҷавоби дурустро интихоб намоед:
1) is written            а) навишта шудааст
б) навишташуда

2) will be shown     а) намоиш дода мешавад
б) ба намоиш гузошта шуд

3)goes                       а) меравад
б) меояд

4) have reported      а) ҳисобот дод
б) ҳисобот

5) is changing           а) тағйир ёфта истодааст
б) тағйир медиҳад

6) has been spent     а) сарф мешавад
б) сарф шуд

7) will hold                а) медорад
б) дошта истодааст

8) are used               а) истифода мешаванд
б) истифода шуданд

9) use                         а) истифода кардан
б) истифода бурда истодаанд

Машқи 12. Калимаҳоро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:

special –                                     specialist –
specially –                                  speciality –
specialism –                               specialize –
specific –                                    specify –
specialty –

toefl.sutoefl.su

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