Lesson-6

Free Online English Classes. Lesson 6 – Дарси 6

I.Грамматика: Инфинитив, таркибҳои инфинитив ва хусусиятҳои  тарҷумаи он

II. Лексика: Text: “Bank

Инфинитив шакли ибтидоии феъл буда, он шахсу шумора, ҷинс ва замон надорад, яъне он шакли бешахси феъл мебошад. Инфинитив ба саволи «чӣ кор кардан?» ҷавоб мегӯяд.

to read – хондан
Чӣ кор кардан? – Хондан.
I was glad to see the car stop.
Ман аз дидани таваққуфи мошин хурсанд будам.

Дар ҷумлаи боло калимаи to see – дидан чун инфинитив омадааст. Дар забони тоҷикӣ инфинитивро ба истилоҳи дигар ном мебаранд, яъне чун масдар қабул кардаанд. Дар забони тоҷикӣ масдарро бо иловаи бандаки «-ан» месозанд.
Масалан: хонд – хондан, навишт – навиштан.

Аммо дар забони англисӣ бошад, инфинитивро бо кӯмаки ҳиссачаи to месозанд.
Мисол: to see, to speak, to send

Инфинитив дар забони англисӣ 4 шакли тарзи фоил ва 2 шакли тарзи мафъул дорад.
Инфинитиви оддӣ дар шакли тарзи фоил:
Firuz likes to write letters.
Фируз навиштани мактубҳоро дӯст медорад.

Инфинитиви давомдор:
What is Firuz doing? – He must be writing that letter.
Фирӯз чӣ кор карда истодааст? – Ӯ бояд он мактубро менавишт.

Инфинитиви мутлақ дар тарзи фоил:
Firuz is glad to have written that letter.
Фирӯз аз навиштани он мактуб хурсанд аст.

Инфинитиви мутлақи давомдор:
Firuz must have been writing that letter since morning.
Фирӯз бояд аз саҳар инҷониб мактубро менавишт.

Инфинитиви оддӣ дар тарзи мафъул:
This letter seems to be written in pencil.
Шояд ин мактуб бо қалаб навишта шудааст.

Инфинитиви мутлақ дар тарзи мафъул:
This letter seems to have been written long before it was discovered.
Шояд ин мактуб қабл аз кашф шудан, хеле пеш навишта шудааст.

Ҳангоми дар як вақт ё замони гуногун ифода ёфтани амалиёт инфинитивро метавон истифода кард:
I am glad to see you. (Present Tense)
Ман аз дидори Шумо хушнудам.
I like to be given presents. (Indefinite Tense)
Ман дӯст медорам, вақте ки ба ман тӯҳфа медиҳанд.

Барои ифодаи замони оянда, инфинитивро бояд пас аз феълҳои модалии «may, must, should, ought to» ва феълҳои «to expectинтизор (умедвор, нигарон) шудан», «to intend – хостан, ният (қасд) доштан, қасд кардан», «to hope дилпур будан, умед доштам», «to want хостан»-ро метавон гузошт:

You may come tomorrow.
Шумо метавонед, пагох оед.
He must do it immediately!
Ту бояд инро фавран иҷро кунӣ!
You should / ought to put on a warm hat.
Ту бояд кулоҳи гарм пӯшӣ.
I expect to see you next week.
Ман умедворам, ки туро ҳафтаи оянда мебинам.
I intend to go to the seaside this summer.
Ман ният дорам, то ки ин тобистон ба соҳили баҳр равам.
I hope to find him at home.
Ман дилпурам, ки ӯро дар хона меёбам.

Калима ва ибораҳои нав
deposit – депозит, амонат
derive a profit – ҳосил кардан, фоида ба даст овардан
savings deposits – амонати фоизноки қарзӣ ба мӯҳлати муайян
facilitate – мусоидат кардан, мусоид будан, кӯмак (ёрмандӣ, мадад) кардан
funds – фонд, воситаҳои нақдӣ
charge fees – мукофотпулӣ, ҳаққи комиссия
lender of last resort – қарздиҳандаи охирин дар вазъияти ногувор
guarantor – кафил, зомин
monetary system – низоми нақдӣ
deals in – сарукор доштан, савдогарӣ кардан
substitutes – ивазшаванда, мубодила
provide – таъмин кардан
loans – карзҳо
profit – фоида,  даромад
rates – фоизҳо
major – асосӣ
offer – пешниҳод  кардан
individuals – фард
institution – муассиса
addition – иловагӣ, илова
charge fees – мукофот пулӣ, ҳаққи комисия.
involved – ҷалбшуда
issue – масъала, чоп , нашр, эмиссия (баровардани пул ва қоғазҳои қимматнок)
maintain – дастгири кардан, нигоҳ доштан, муҳофизат кардан
currency – reserves – нигоҳдории асъор, захираи маблағ
supervise – назорат кардан
act – акт, санад
bankers – банкир, бонкдор, кантораи бонкдорӣ
government  – ҳукумат, маъмурият
credit policies – сиёсати қарзӣ
case – ҳолат
finansial crisis – бӯҳрони молиявӣ
significant – муҳим, назаррас
governmental supervision – назорати маъмурӣ, назорати ҳукуматӣ
Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:

Bank

Bank and its classes. Bank – an institution that deals in money and its substitutes and provides other financial services. Banks accept deposits and make loans and derive a profit from the different interest rates. They also have the power to create money. The two major classes of banks are commercial and central banks. Commercial banks accept savings deposits, make loans and other investments, and offer financial services that facilitate the exchange of funds among individuals and institutions. In addition to the profit derived from the different interest rates, commercial banks charge fees for various services. Central banks are involved in the issue of money and maintain the country’s foreign currency reserves. Central banks maintain the accounts of other banks and supervise their activities. Central banks act as bankers to government, as the designers of monetary and credit policies, and as lenders of last resort to commercial banks in the case of a financial crisis. Central banks also play a significant psychological role as guarantors of the monetary system. Central banks may be nationalised organisations and are subject to government control, but some of them can have independence from governmental supervision.

Машқи 2. Ҷумлаҳоро хонед ва ризогӣ ё норизогии хешро нисбати онҳо баён кунед:

1) Bank trades in money. 2) Bank gives various financial services. 3) Banks receive deposits. 4) Banks don’t make loans. 5) Banks derive a profit by skilfully deceiving people. 6) Commercial banks aid the exchange of funds among individuals and institutions. 7) Central banks act as bankers to organize crime. 8) central banks act as the designers of default. 9) Central banks act as the designers of foreign policy. 10) Central banks acr as lenders of last resort to counterfighters. 11) Central banks play an important role as guarantors of the monetary system. 12) Central banks have the right to issue money. 13) Central banks keep the country’s foreign currency reserves. 14) Central banks back up the accounts of other banks. 15) Central banks oversee the activities of other banks. 16) Central banks may be private owned organisations. 17) Central banks are subject to shadow ministers. 18) Central banks are totally dependent on their bank customers.

Машқи 3. Калима ва ибораҳоро ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:
а) депозит, амонат; б) ҳосил кардан; в) фоизи амонати қарзӣ ба мӯҳлати муайян; г) мусоидат кардан, кӯмак (мадад) кардан; д) фонд, воситаҳои нақдӣ; е) мукофотпулӣ (ҳаққи комиссия); ё) эмиссия (баровардани асъор ва коғазҳои қиматнок); ж) қарздиҳандаи охирин дар вазъияти муташанниҷ; з) кафил, зомин; и) низоми нақдӣ

Бонкҳо бо нақд ва мубодилаи он фаолият мебаранд. Бонкҳо хизматрасониҳои мухталифи нақдиро таъмин мекунанд. Бонк амонат қабул мекунад. Бонкҳо қарз медиҳанд. Бонк аз ҳисоби фоизи қарзҳо даромад ба даст меоранд. Бонкҳо метавонанд аз назорати ҳукуматӣ мустақил бошанд.

Машқи 4. Ҷойҳои холиро пур кунед:
1)Bank deals in … 2) Bank provides … 3) Banks accept … 4) Banks make … 5) Banks derive … 6) Banks have … 7) The two major classes of banks are … 8) Commercial banks  accept … 9) Commercial banks make … 10) Commercial banks offer … 11) Commercial banks charge … 12) Central banks  are involved in … 13) Central banks maintain … 14) Central banks supervise … 15) Central banks act as … 16) Central banks play … 17) Central banks may be … 18) Central banks are subject to … 19) Central banks can have …

Машқи 5. Бо калима ва ибораҳои нав шинос шавед:
foster – мусоидат кардан, ёрӣ додан
transition – гузариш
entrepreneur – соҳибкор
environmentally sound – аз нуқтаи назари экологӣ мақбул
range – қатор
implement – иҷро кардан, ба ҷо (ба амал) овардан, ҷомаи амал пӯшондан
privatization – хусусигардонӣ
banking – хизматрасониҳои бонкӣ
personnel administration – идоракунии маъмурӣ
evaluation – нархгузорӣ
internal audit – тафтиши дохилӣ

Машқи 6. Ба саволҳо ҷавоб диҳед:
1) When the European bank was established? 2) Where are its headquarters? 3) What is its purpose? 4) What the European Bank will endeavour to do? 5) What the European Bank’s requirements to integrate into the international economy are? 6) What the European Bank perform in fulfilling does its purpose? 7) What departments the European Bank does have? 8) What members the European Bank have does?
 
Машқи 7. Ҷумлаҳоро хонед ва ризогӣ ё норизогии хешро нисбати онҳо баён кунед:
1) The European Bank’s headquarters are in Paris. 2) The European Bank was founded in 1980. 3) The European Bank’s ambition is to favour the transition to a planned economy. 4) The European Bank’s aim is to promote business initiative. 5) The European Bank will help less developed countries join into the international economy. 6) Industrial nations should strengthen democratic institutions. 7) Commonwealth countries must respect human rights. 8) The countries of European Union have to conduct environmentally sound policies. 9) The European Bank brings the underdeveloped countries to ruin with privatization. 10) The European Bank assists the open market oriented economies with monopolization. 11) The European Bank lends the open market oriented economies a helping hand with centralization.

Машқи 8. Ҷойҳои холиро пур кунед:
1) The European Bank has its headquarters in … 2) It was established … 3) It is the first … 4) Its purpose is … 5) The European Bank will endeavour … 6) Its particular concern is … 7) The Bank performs … 8) These functions are designed to assist … 9) The European Bank  has … departments and … members.

Машқи 9. Бо матни зерин шинос шавед:
European Investment Bank (EIB). The EIB was formed in 1958 with its headquarters in Luxembourg. It is administered by a Board of Governors which consists of a Minister (usually the Finance Minister) of each member country that lays down general directives on cridet policy, approves the balance sheet, decides on capital increases and appoints directors and members of the management and audit committees. The Board of Directors has overall responsibility for deciding on loans and setting interest rates. The EIB makes loans for a wide range of projects. The pattern of lending depends on demand, the viability of the projects and their consistency with the European Economic Community’s policies. Almost all the funds necessary to finance its lending operations are raised by borrowing on capital markets, mainly through public bond issues. While its traditional product is fixed rate loans, adjustable fixed-rate and variable-rate loans are also available. Maturities range between 4 – 20 or more years with repayment of principal and interest normally in equal six-monthly installments. Depending on the borower’s preferences and the EIB’s holdings, loans are disbursed in a single currency, such as the ECU (Euro), or the borower’s own currency, or in a mix of several currencies. The European Invesrment Bank does not charge commitment, management or other fees.

Машқи 10. Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед:
directives – нишондиҳанда
increase – афзудан, зиёд шудан
viability – кобилияти ҳаётӣ (зист, зиндагӣ), мӯҳлати корӣ
consistency – мутобиқат, мувофиқат, мувофик будан
adjustable – қобили идора, идорашаванда
variable – тағирёбанда, ивазшаванда; нопойдор, мухталиф
musturities – мӯҳлати пардохт
disburse – пардохт кардан
charge – талаб кардан
public bond issues – масъалаҳои ӯҳдадориҳои давлатӣ
fixed rate – фоизи бетағйир
variable-rate – фоизи тағйирёбанда
maturities – рӯзи охирини қарз, мӯҳлати баргардонидани қарз
borrower – қарзгир
preference – талабот, нигоҳ, хоҳиш (ҳуқуқи қарзгир ҷиҳати таъмин бо сармоя)
repayment – пардохти қарз, баргардонидани мағлағ
principal – қарзи асосӣ, қарздор
European Economic Community – Иттиҳоди Аврупо
installment – пардохти қисмӣ
capital market – бозори капитали қарзии дарозмӯҳлат
lending operation – амалиёти қарздиҳӣ
balance sheet – ҳисоботи балансӣ

Машқи 11. Ба саволҳо ҷавоб гӯед:
1)When the EIB was formed? 2) Where its headquarters is? 3) What it administered by is? 4) Whom the Board of Governors does consist of? 5) What the functons of the Board of Governors are? 6)What the Board of Directors have does? 7) What the EIB does make? 8) What the pattern of lending depend on does? 9) Where the EIB take its funds does? 10) What are loans available by the EIB? 11) What the EIB’s maturities do range? 12) How the EIB’s loans are disbursed? 13) Does the EIB any fees charge?

Машқи 12. Ҷумлаҳоро хонед ва ризогӣ ё норизогии хешро нисбати онҳо баён кунед:
1) The Board of directors formulates general directives on credit policy. 2) The Board of Directors sanctions the balance sheet 3) The Board of Directors decides on capital decreases. 4) The Board of Directors ousts directors. 5) The Board of Directors doesn’t assume responsibility for deciding on loans. 6) The EIB makes investments for a wide range of projects. 7) The EIB’s pattern of lending depends on market. 8) Borrowing on capital markets cuts the EIB’s funds. 9) The EIB’s loans are paid in a single currency. 11) The EIB charges commitment and management fees.

Машқи 13. Ҷойҳои холиро пур кунед:
1) The EIB was formed … 2) Its headquarters is … 3) The EIB is administered by … 4) The Board of Governors lays down … 5) The EIB makes … 6) The EIB’s pattern of lending depends on … 7) The EIB’s funds are rised … 8) The EIB ‘s traditional product is … 9) The EIB ‘s maturities range … 10) The EIB’s loans are disbursed … 11) The EIB does not charge …

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