I.Грамматика: Инфинитив, таркибҳои инфинитив ва хусусиятҳои тарҷумаи он
II. Лексика: Text: “Market”
Калима ва ибораҳои нав
social relations – муносибатхои иҷтимоӣ
infrastructures – инфрасохторҳо
legal tender (созиш)-и қонунӣ
fiat money – асъори майданашавада, коғази қиматнок
arrangement – созишнома
buyer – харидор
essential – асосӣ
separate – ҷудо кардан тақсим кардан
sides – тарафҳо (байни харидор ва фурӯшанда)
geographic scale – масоҳати ҷуғрофӣ
human communities – ҷамоатҳо, ҷамъият
held – воқеъ будан
town squares – масоҳати шаҳрҳо
parking lots – таваққуфгоҳи мошинҳо
shoping malls – марказҳои савдо
commodity market – бозори молҳо
pollution permits – иҷозатномаҳо барои партова
illegal – ғайриқонунӣ
illicit drugs – доруҳои манъшуда
transaction – амалиёти бонкӣ ё тиҷоратӣ
participants – иштирокунандагон, ҳозирин
facilitate – кумак кардан, мусоидат кардан, таъмин кардан
tradable item – амалиёти тиҷоратӣ, амалиёти тиҷоратбоб
evaluate – арзиш, баҳо додан
deliberately – бо мақсад, ҳадафнок
marketplaces – ҷои бозорӣ
wholesale market – бозори дохилӣ (яклухт)
despite – ба он нигоҳ наркарда (несмотря)
auction – музояда (ауктсион)
varying – фарқ кунанда
spontancously – ногаҳон
arise – афзоиш ёфтан
whenever – ҳар вақте ки
hence – дар натиҷа
сigarettes – сигор
correctional facilities – муасисаҳои ислоҳҷӯ
chewing gum – сақич
playground – майдончаи бозӣ
delivery – расонидан
virtual market – бозори воқеӣ (форум)
under – зери, дар зери
negotiation – музокирот, гуфтугӯ (переговоры)
pressure – фишор
repress – фишор овардан
interaction – ҳамкорӣ
Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
A market is a complex of a variety of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby businessmen sell their goods, services and labour to people in exchange for money. It is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange items. Competition is essential in markets, and separates market from trade. Two persons may trade, but it takes at least three persons to have a market, so that there is competition on at least one of its two sides. Markets vary in size, range, geographic scale, location, types and variety of human communities, as well as the types of goods and services traded. Some examples include local farmers’ markets held in town squares or parking lots, shopping centers and shopping malls, international currency and commodity markets, legally created markets such as for pollution permits, and illegal markets such as the market for illicit drugs.
In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price. This influence is a major study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. There are two roles in markets, buyers and sellers. The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or is constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights of services and goods.
Historically, markets originated in physical marketplaces which would often develop into or from small communities, towns and cities.
A market can be organized as an auction, as a private electronic market, as a commodity wholesale market, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market, and as an informal discussion between two individuals.
Markets of varying types can spontaneously arise whenever a party has interest in a good or service that some other party can provide. Hence there can be a market for cigarettes in correctional facilities, another for chewing gum in a playground, and yet another for contracts for the future delivery of a commodity. There can be black markets, where a good is exchanged illegally and virtual markets, such as eBay, in which buyers and sellers do not physically interact during negotiation. There can also be markets for goods under a command economy despite pressure to repress them.
Машқи 2. Таносуби шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро ёбед:
|1. infrastructure||a. a public meeting where things are sold to the person who offers the most money for them|
|2. competition||b. a group of shops together in one area, often in one large building|
|3. auction||c. a situation in which organizations try to be more successful than other organizations|
|4. shopping center||d. the business of buying and selling stocks and shares|
|5. stock market||e. the basic systems and structures that a country or organization needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks etc.|
Машқи 3. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. мубодилаи асъор||6. биржаи захиравӣ (фондӣ)|
|2. коғазҳои қимматнок||7. фаолони бозор|
|3. бозори амвол||8. талабот ва пешниҳод|
|4. бозори фурӯши яклухт||9. тиҷоратро инкишоф додан|
|5. бозори сиёҳ||10. бозори воқеӣ|
Машқи 4. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. command economy||6. tradable item|
|2. illegal market||7. shopping mall|
|3. allocation of resources||8. labour|
|4. buyers and sellers||9. legal tender|
|5. evaluate||10. delivery of a commodity|
Машқи 5. Ҷавоби дурустро интихоб кунед:
- ……….. is any one of a variety of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures.
- a) tender b) delivery c) market
- Markets where a good is exchanged illegally is called ………..
- a) black markets b) shopping malls c) virtual markets
- eBay is an example of ………….
- a) black market b) commodity market c) virtual market
- A group of shops together in one area is called …………..
- a) commodity market b) illegal market c) shopping
- A market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to ……….. any type of goods or services.
- a) sell b) buy c) exchange
Машқи 6. Ба саволҳои зерин ҷавоб диҳед:
- What is a market?
- What is a black market?
- What is a virtual market?
- What is needed for a market to function?
- What is the role of market participants?
Машқи 7. Нуктаи назари хешро ҷудо кунед:
- What is e-market? What do people usually sell/buy on e-markets?
- Have you ever bought/sold anything on the Internet? What was it?
- Are e-markets and e-commerce convenient? Why? Why not?
Ибораҳои зеринро истифода баред:
|To my mind …||In my experience …|
|In my opinion …||As far as I understand …|
|On the one hand, …on the other hand||From my point of view …|
|If my memory serves me right …||If I am not mistaken …|
|It seems to me that …||Personally, I think …|
|My personal view is that …||I am sure/certain/convinced that …|
|The fact is that …||This proves that …|
|It is obvious that …||There is no doubt that …|
Машқи 8. Бо истифода аз калима ва ибораҳои зерин, мактуб нависед:
Your are the Supply Manager of the Engineering Company. You need 600 computers for your company and you found information about Dell Computer Corporation (Russia) and decided to write them a letter. In your letter do the following:
1) write a letter to Mr. Hopsky – distribution Manager, Company address: 34, Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow, Russia, 452450.
2) ask about the price and models of computers;
3) ask about discount or offer in return for buying a large amount of computers;
4) ask about corporate software and service.