I. Грамматика: Герундий, таркибҳои герундий ва хусусиятҳои тарҷумаи он.
II. Лексика: Text: “Marketing and sales”
Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед:
process – ҷараён
indentifying – баробаркунӣ, ҷудо кардан
anticipating – пешгӯӣ кардан, огоҳ кардан
requirement – талабот
сonsumer – мизоҷ (клиент)
persuading – бовар кунонидан, розӣ кунонидан
therefore – бинобар ин
identify – баробар кардан, муайян кардан
be convinced – фаҳмидан, дарк кардан
razors – устуру, поку (теғ)
carries out – амалӣ кардан, ҷорӣ кардан
sorts – навъҳо, хелҳо
improvements – беҳбудиҳо
existing – мавҷуд буда
range – табақа, дараҷа
result – натиҷа,ҷамъбаст
suitable – мувофиқ
be able – тавонистан, қудрат доштан
in contrast – дар муқоиса
through – аз байни, тавассути, ба воситаи, бо шарофати
research – тадқиқот, таҳқиқ
to find out – фаҳмидан, маълум кардан
take place – ба вуҷуд омадан, ба вуқӯъ омадан, ҷой гирифтан
сome up – оммавӣ шудан (мӯд)
Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
MARKETING AND SALES
Marketing is the process of identifying, anticipating and then meeting the needs and requirements of consumers in order to make a profit. In contrast, selling involves persuading customers that your products or services provide the benefits that they are looking for.
You can therefore see that there is an important difference between marketing and sales. Marketing puts the needs of the customer first. Through market research, it is possible to find out about customer tastes and requirements.
In contrast, selling takes place after marketing has helped the business to identify those sorts of goods that customers are looking for. The sales person is convinced that their interests and tastes are important thing in business. It is their job to convince customers that this is the case.
The marketing department of a firm that produces razors like BIC or Gillette carries out research to find out the sorts of shaving developments that their customers are looking for. They ask customers to tell them what improvements they would like to see to existing products and what new products they would like developing. They test market a range of possible products on customers. As a result of the marketing process they are able to come up with the most suitable products.
Having invested so much in customer focused marketing they must then sell the benefits of the new product developments to customers. This involves advertising and promotion to communicate product benefits. It involves providing the appropriate support literature and direct selling to retail outlets that will stock the new razors. The sales force is effectively selling the benefits of the new products. These benefits were developed as a result of market and product research. Marketing and sales therefore go hand in hand.
Marketing is all about finding out what the customer wants. Selling is all about showing the customer that you can please them by providing them with the products that they want.
Marketing is designed to achieve profitable sales. It involves the use of powerful tools to manipulate the decisions of individuals and of other firms in the private and public sectors. This means that boundaries must be set to define the limits of acceptable behaviour.
Some limitations are imposed on a voluntary basis by firms themselves and by industry-based organisations such as the Advertising Standards Authority. But the law must provide the ultimate source of regulation in areas such as:
consumer protection: laws regulating product safety, honesty in product description and rights to refunds and exchanges; credit: laws requiring lenders to provide full information about a loan including the Annual Percentage Rate (APR); also giving time for borrowers to change their minds; information: obligation to disclose information held about consumers; child protection: age limits for the sale of alcohol and tobacco products; film certification.
Overall the law has to find a balance between the importance of profitable business enterprise and the need to protect consumers from unfair or anti-social marketing activity.
Машқи 2. Таносуби шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро ёбед
|1. marketing||a) a company, organization, or business|
|2. refund||b) someone who has borrowed money and has not yet paid it all back|
|3. enterprise||c) the activity of deciding how to advertise a product|
|4. obligation||d) an amount of money that is given back to you if you are not satisfied with the goods or services that you have paid for|
|5. borrower||e) a moral or legal duty to do something|
Машқи 3. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. фурӯшанда||6. пешбарӣ, беҳбудӣ|
|2. маълумот паҳн кардан||7. эълон (реклама)|
|3. фоизи маблағи солона||8. ҳайати корчаллон|
|4. фурӯши даромаднок||9. ҳимояи ҳуқуқи харидорон|
|5. мағозаи чаканафурӯшӣ||10. шӯъбаи маркетинг|
Машқи 4. Калима ва ибораҳои зеринро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:
|1. to manipulate the decisions of individuals||6. product safety|
|2. private and public sectors||7. loan|
|3. to make a profit||8. market and product research|
|4. limitations||9. to change mind|
|5. industry-based organisations||10. to use powerful tools|
Машқи 5. Ҷавоби дурустро интихоб кунед:
………….. is the process of identifying, anticipating and then meeting the needs and requirements of consumers.
- a) refund b) product safety c) marketing
- Communicating product benefits includes ………….. and promotion.
- a) product research b) advertising c) product safety
- Marketing involves the use of powerful tools to …………. the decisions of individuals.
- a) manipulate b) change c) encroach
- The ……….. is effectively selling the benefits of the new products.
- a) marketing b) sales force c) promotion
- The job of ………… is to convenience customers.
- a) sales person b) manager c) consumer
Машқи 6. Ба саволҳо ҷавоб гӯед:
- What is marketing?
- What is sales force?
- What should be done to increase sales?
- What limitations are provided by the ultimate source of regulation?
- What is the job of a sales person?
Машқи 7. Бо калима ва ибораҳои нав шинос шавед:
give a hand with something – бо ягон восита дасти ёрӣ додан
receipt – расид (квитанция)
carbohydrates – карбогидратҳо (углеводы)
picky – серталаб; нозуктабъ
groceries – молҳои озуқаворӣ
Машқи 8. Матни «Grocery Shopping»-ро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:
Imagine you need to go shopping for food because you are hosting a party for 30 friends, some of whom are international students from around the world. You don’t have a lot of money, so cost is important to you. Thus, where would you do your shopping in your area and what kinds of food and drink would you buy for the party? Many people have shopped online for different items including electronics, clothing, and books, but few have shopped online for food and groceries. Today, more and more companies offered food delivery on grocery items including meat and dairy (milk) products. Whether such services are or are not currently available in your area, having an idea on the benefits and/or disadvantages of such services can be helpful if and when you you encounter such companies in the future. Use the Internet to learn more about one such company and then determine (1) the company’s rationale for offering grocery delivery service, (2) how this company’s service is similar and/or different than at least one other competitor, and (3) how prices on food items compare to those found in a local, neighborhood grocery store.
Машқи 9. Аз 3 бахши саволҳо, якеашро интихоб кунед ва бо истифода аз калима ва ибораҳои поён, ба саволҳо ҷавоб гӯед:
- Does advertisement influence people? Whom is advertisement aimed at? Why?
- What TV commercial can you watch on TV every day? What goods/services are advertised more frequently than others? What is your favourive TV commercial? Why?
- You are the Marketing Manager of a clothes producing company. Think of an advertisement campaign that you can launch to advertise your clothes.
Ҳангоми ҷавоб, аз калима ва ибораҳои зерин истифода баред:
|To my mind …||In my experience …|
|In my opinion …||As far as I understand …|
|On the one hand, …on the other hand||From my point of view …|
|If my memory serves me right …||If I am not mistaken …|
|It seems to me that …||Personally, I think …|
|My personal view is that …||I am sure/certain/convinced that …|
|The fact is that …||This proves that …|
|It is obvious that …||There is no doubt that …|
Машқи 10. Ба эълони поён хислатномаи мувофиқ тартиб диҳед:
|Computer Sales ltd |
is looking for a dynamic
| If your qualifications include:|
· University degree in Economics or Management;
Please send your resume to hh.compsales.com, attn. Mary Recruiter